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Full text of "A new system of broad and small sword exercise, comprising the broad sword exercise for cavalry and the small sword cut and thrust practice for infantry. To which are added, instructions in horsemanship. Illustrated by forty-five handsome and effective engravings"

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MILITARY TRIMMINGS 

And General Army and Navy Furnishing Store, 
The Oldest Establishment at present in the United States, 



Caps, Swords, Belts, Epauletts, Sashes, Buttons, 
Flags, Cords and Tassels, and all other kinds of 
military equipments suitable for officers of the Army 
or Navy, Infantry, Artillery, Cavalry Troop, and 
Rifle Companies. 

Orders from any part of the United States, ac- 
companied with good reference for all kind of mili- 
tary articles, including Military Horse Covers, Hol- 
sters, Bridles, Spurs, Stirrup Irons, and all other 
kinds of Horse Equipments, promptly attended to. 

It is only necessary to mention whether required 
according to United States, Pennsylvania, or other 
State regulations. 

All orders in the above line put up at the shortest 
notice, and at prices more moderate than at any 
other establishment. 

Also for sale, Cooper's Military Tactics, supervised 
by the late Major General Alexander Macomb, and 
adopted by the United States, State of Pennsylvania, 
and other States generally. Together with Pro- 
fessor Stephens' new and approved System of Broad 
and Small Sword Exercise, 

Also, an assortment of Coach Lace, Furniture 
Fringes, Patent Fly Nets for carriage horses, &c. 

Apply at H. KORN'S Military Store, 

No. 22 North Third Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



NEW SYSTEM 



OF 



BROAD 1KD SMALL SWORD EXERCISE, 



COMPRISING 

THE BROAD SWORD EXERCISE FOR CAVALRY 

AND THE SMALL SWORD CUT AND THRUST 

PRACTICE FOR INFANTRY. 



TO WHICH ARE ADDED, 

INSTRUCTIONS IN HORSEMANSHIP. 

ILLUSTRATED BY 

FORTY-FIVE HANDSOME AND EFFECTIVE ENGRAVINGS. 

PREPARED AND ARRANGED BY 

THOMAS STEPHENS, 

PROFESSOR OF BROAD AND SMALL SWORD EXERCISE. 



HENRY KORN, 
MILITARY STORE, 

No. 22 NORTH THIRD STREET, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

1844. 



Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1843, by 

THOMAS STEPHENS, 

In the office of the Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 



The Author feels confident that his labors will receive the 
approval of every true American citizen who regards the Profes- 
sion of Arms as necessary to a sure National defence ; as well as 
all others who look upon the diffusion of Military Art, among the 
people at large, as one of the best securities for the permanency of 
our Republican Institutions. 

The " Soldier," and the " Citizen Soldier," will deem no long- 
winded and verbose introduction necessary, as an inducement to call 
their attention to the work. The Author frankly asks them to ex- 
amine the following pages for their own satisfaction ; he cheerfully 
challenges comparison between his system of Instruction and any 
other system at present in existence. 

The merit of the work consists in acknowledged improvements, 
originated and perfected by the Author, from observation, long and 
thorough practice, and a familiar acquaintance with the use of every 
species of modern weapon, acquired in the schools of Europeon ser- 
vice. 

The want of an uniform system of Sword Exercise in this country 
is apparent to every military man ; therefore, nothing need be added 
on this head. 

The advice and recommendations of numerous friends, military 
men, officers high in rank, and various gentlemen of station, intelli- 
gence, and military skill, coupled with a desire to establish a com- 
plete Sword Manual, induced the compilation of the present work — 
which the Author now offers to the American public. 



DEDICATED, 

WITH MUCH RESPECT, 
TO THE 

MILITARY OF THE UNITED STATES, 

BY THEIR FELLOW CITIZEN, 

THOMAS STEPHENS. 



PART THE FIRST. 

CHAPTER I. 

INSTRUCTION OF THE CAVALRY SOLDIER ON FOOT, 

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



The Instructors, to whom this duty is intrusted, ought 
to possess accurate knowledge of every part which is to 
be taught, and convey their instructions in such a clear, 
firm, and concise manner, as will command a perfect 
attention to their directions. They should make allow- 
ance for the weak capacity of the recruit ; be patient, 
not rigorous, where endeavor and good will are appa- 
rent ; for quickness is the result of much practice, and 
ought not at first to be expected. 

Recruits should be carried on progressively; they 
should understand one thing before they proceed to 
another. In the first circumstances of position, the limbs 
should be justly placed by the Instructor ; when more 
advanced, they should not be touched ; but from the 
example shown, and the directions given, they must be 
taught to correct themselves. Recruits should not be 
kept too long at any particular part of their exercise, so 
as to fatigue or to make them uneasy. 

In the manner hereafter prescribed, recruits ought 
to be trained singly, or in squads, until they are perfect 
in all points of exercise. 
2 



SECTION I. 

EXTENSION MOTIONS. 

These motions tend to expand the chest, raise the 
head, throw back the shoulders, and strengthen the 
muscles of the back. 

POSITIONS OF THE SOLDIER. 

The equal squareness of the shoulders and body to the 
front, is the first and great principle of the position of a 
soldier. The heels must be in a line, and closed ; the 
knees straight, without stiffness ; the toes a little turned 
out, so that the feet may form an angle of about sixty 
degrees ; the arms hanging near the body, without stiff- 
ness ; the elbows close to the sides ; palms of the hands 
turned a little to the front ; the little fingers behind the 
seams of the pantaloons ; the stomach rather drawn in, 
and the breast advanced, but without constraint; the 
body upright, but inclining forward, so that the weight of 
it may principally bear on the fore part of the feet ; the 
head to be erect, and neither turned to the right nor left. 

OPEN INTERVAL 

Is taken by each recruit stretching out his right arm 
so as to touch the left shoulder of his right-hand man, 
and keeping that distance from him. 

STANDING AT EASE. 

On the word " Stand at ease," the right foot is drawn 
back about six inches — hollow of the foot opposite the 
heel of the left. Cross the hands naturally in front ; 
palm of the right grasping the back of the left ; the 
elbows a little bent. 

ATTENTION. 

On the word " Attention," briskly resume the first po- 
sition. When the recruit falls in for instruction, he is 
first to be taught to place himself, on the word " Fall in," 
in the position above described, to remain perfectly silent, 
and to give his whole attention to his Instructor. Occa- 
sionally during the time of drill the recruit should be 
allowed to rest by " Standing at ease." 



SECTION II. 

PACING AND MARCHING.— EYES TO THE FLANK. 

Eyes Right. — On the word " Eyes Right/' glance the 
eyes to the right^ with the slightest turn possible of the 
head. At the word " Eyes Left/ 7 cast the eyes in like 
manner to the left. On the word " Eyes Front," the look 
and head are to be directly to the front, the habitual po- 
sition of the soldier. 

Particular attention must be paid, in the several turn- 
ings of the eyes, to prevent the soldier from moving his 
body, which should be preserved perfectly square to the 
front. In all marches to the front, the pupil or recruit is 
to be taught to keep his eyes steadily fixed, as if looking 
at some object of his own height, at one hundred yards 
distance in front ; and the eyes are never to be cast down, 
or thrown to a flank, except when ordered. On all other 
occasions, the touch of the pupil or recruit must be his 
guide. 

THE FACINGS. 

In going through the facings, the left heel never quits 
the ground ; the body must rather incline forward, and 
the knees be kept straight. 

Right Face. — 1st. Place the hollow of the right foot 
smartly against the left heel, keeping the shoulders square 
to the front. 2d. Raise the toes, and turn to the right on 
both heels. 

Left Face. — 1st. Place the right heel against the hol- 
low of the left foot, keeping the shoulders square to the 
front. 2d. Raise the toes, and turn to the left on both 
heels. 

Right-about Face. — 1st. Place the ball of the right 
toe against the left heel, keeping the shoulders square to 
the front, 2d. Raise the toes, and turn to the right-about 
on both heels. 3d. Bring the right foot smartly back in 
a line with the left. 

Left-about Face. — Place the right heel against the 
ball of the left toe, keeping the shoulders square to the 
front. 2d. Raise the toes, and turn to the left-about on 
both heels. 



8 

Right or Left, Half Face. — Each man will make an 
exact half face, as directed, by drawing back or advan- 
cing the right foot one inch, by which the whole will 
stand individually in echellons. 

INSTRUCTION OF FRONT. 

Front. — The whole will face, as accurately as pos- 
sible, to their former front. 

Might or Left-about, Three quarters Face. — The 
recruit brings the ball of the right foot to the left heel, 
or the right heel to the ball of the left foot, and makes a 
three quarters face in the given direction. Upon the 
word " Front," if he has faced to the right, he fronts to 
the left ; and if he has faced to the left, he fronts to the 
right. 

The feet, in the first of the above motions, are to be 
slipped back or brought forward without a jerk, the 
movement being from the hip, so that the body is kept 
perfectly steady until faced. 

The greatest precision must be observed in these 
facings, for if they are not exactly executed, a body of 
men, after being properly dressed, will lose their dressing 
on every small movement of facing. 

POSITION IN MARCHING. 

In marching, the soldier must maintain, as much as 
possible, the position of the body, as directed in page 6. 
He must be well balanced on his limbs. His arms and 
hands, without stiffness, must be kept steady by his side, 
and not suffered to vibrate. He must not be allowed to 
stoop forward, or to lean back. His body must be kept 
square to the front, and thrown rather more forward in 
marching than when halted, that it may accompany the 
movement of the leg and thigh ; which movement must 
spring from the haunch. The ham must be stretched, 
but without stiffening the knee ; the toe a little pointed, 
and kept near the ground, so that the shoe soles may not 
be visible to a person in front ; the head to be kept well 
up, straight to the front, and the eyes not suffered to be 
cast down ; the foot, without being drawn back, must be 
placed flat on the ground. 



BALANCE STEP, WITHOUT GAINING GROUND. 

Front. — The left foot is brought gently forward, with 
the toe at the proper angle to the left, the foot about three 
inches from the ground, the left heel in line with the toe 
of the right foot. 

Rear. — When steady, the left foot is brought gently 
back, (without a jerk,) the left knee a little bent, the left 
toe brought close to the right heel. The left foot, in this 
position, will not be so flat as to the front, as the toe will 
be a little depressed. 

When steady, the words "Front" and "Rear" will be 
given alternately, and repeated three or four times. To 
prevent the pupils or recruits being fatigued, the word 
"Halt" will be given — when the left foot, either ad- 
vanced or to the rear, will be brought to the right. The 
Instructor will afterward make the pupil or recruit 
balance upon the left leg, advancing or retiring the right 
in the same manner. 

BALANCE STEP, GAINING GROUND BY THE WORD 
"FORWARD." 

On the word " Front," the left foot is brought smartly 
to the front as before ; the knee straight, the toe turned 
out a little to the left, and remaining about three inches 
from the ground. In this pasture he remains for a few 
seconds only in the first instance, till practice has steadied 
him in the position. 

Forward. — On this word the left foot is brought to the 
ground, at thirty inches from heel to heel,, while the right 
foot is raised at the same moment, and continues extended 
to the rear. The body remains upright, but inclining 
forward ; the head erect, and neither turned to the right 
nor left. 

On the word " Two," the right foot is brought forward 
in a line with the left, the toe a little turned out, and the 
sole quite flat, but raised two inches from the ground. 

On the word " Front," the right foot is brought for- 
ward, and so on. 

BALANCE STEP IN DOUBLE TIME. 

The balance step in double time is performed in the 
manner last described, but without the word of command 



10 

for each step, the Instructor merely giving the words 
" Double time — March." The pupil or recruit judges 
his own time, going through distinctly the balance of 
each leg ; and when the Instructor observes that he is 
steady, the time is gradually decreased to the slow step. 

In the balance step the toe is not to be pointed, or any 
flourish made with the foot, which is to be placed flat on 
the ground, without shaking the body. 

With a view to determine the exact length of pace re- 
quired from the pupil or recruit, in the above movements, 
the pace stick must be used to measure and regulate his 
step according to the time required. 

SLOW STEP. 

The length of each pace, from heel to heel, is thirty 
inches, and the pupil or recruit must be taught to take 
seventy-five of these steps in a minute, without tottering, 
and with perfect steadiness. He must be thoroughly 
instructed in this step^ as an essential foundation for arri- 
ving at accuracy in the quicker paces. This is the 
slowest step at which troops are to move, and will be 
applied to movements of parade. 

HALTING. 

On the word "Halt," let the rear foot be brought upon 
a line with the advanced one,, so as to finish the step 
which was taken when the command was given. 

N. B.— The words " Halt— front," Halt— dress," are 
each to be considered as one word of command, and no 
pause made between the parts of their execution. 



SECTION IIL 

INSTRUCTION FOR A SQUAD IN SINGLE RANK. 

Three or four pupils, or recruits, will now be formed 
in one rank, at very open files, and instructed as follows : 

STEPPING OUT. 

The squad marches, as already directed, in slow time ; 
on the word " Step out," the pupil or recruit must be 
taught to lengthen his step to thirty-three inches, by 



11 

leaning forward a little, but without altering the cadence. 
This step is necessary when a temporary increase of 
pace is required, and is applied both to slow and quick 
time ; and, at the word " Slow," or " Quick step," the 
pace of thirty inches must be resumed. 

STEPPING SHORT. 

On the word " Step short," the foot advancing will 
finish its pace, and afterward each pupil or recruit will 
step as far as the ball of his toe, and no farther, until the 
word " Forward" be given, when the usual step of thirty 
inches is to be taken. 

This step is useful when a momentary decrease ot 
pace is required. 

MARKING TIME. 

On the word " Mark time," the foot then advancing 
completes its pace ; after which the cadence is continued, 
without gaining any ground, but alternately throwing 
out the foot and bringing it back square with the other. 
At the word " Forward," the usual pace of thirty inches 
will be taken. 

This step is necessary when a column, division, (fee, 
on the march, has to wait for the coming up of others. 

STEPPING BACK. 

The " Step back" is performed in the slow time and 
length of pace from the halt. On the command " Step 
back — march," the pupil or recruit must be taught to 
move straight to the rear, preserving his shoulders square 
to the front, and his body erect. On the word " Halt," 
the foot in front must be brought back square with the 
other. A few paces only of the " Step back" can be 
necessary at a time. 

CHANGING THE FEET. 

Change Feet. — The advanced foot completes its pace, 
the ball of the other is brought up quickly to the heel of 
the advanced one, which instantly makes another step 
forward, so that the cadence may not be lost. 

This may be required of a man who is stepping with a 
different foot from the rest of his division : in doing" 



12 

which he will in fact take two successive steps with the 
same foot. 

THE QUICK STEP. 

The cadence of the " Slow pace" having become per- 
fectly habitual to the pupil or recruit, he is now to be 
taught to march in " Quick time," which is one hundred 
and eight steps in a minute, each of thirty inches, making 
two hundred and seventy feet in a minute. 

Quick March. — The command " Quick march" is to 
be given with a pause between the words ; the word 
"quick" being considered as a caution, and the whole 
remaining perfectly still and steady. On the word 
" march," they step off with the left foot, keeping the body 
in the same posture, and the shoulders square to the front ; 
the foot to be lifted off the ground, that it may clear any 
stones or other impediments in the way, and to be thrown 
forward and placed firm ; the whole of the sole to touch 
the ground, and not the heel alone ; the knees are to be 
bent a little, so as not to occasion fatigue or restraint ; the 
arms to hang with ease down the outside of the thigh ; 
the head is to be kept to the front, the body well up, and 
the utmost steadiness to be observed. 

After the pupil or recruit is perfectly grounded in 
marching to the front in quick time, all the alterations of 
step, as above, for slow time, must be practiced in the 
quick time. 

This is the pace which will be applied generally to all 
movements by large as well as small bodies of troops ; 
and, therefore, the pupil or recruit must be thoroughly 
trained in this important part of his instruction. 

THE SIDE, OR CLOSING STEP. 

The Side, or closing step, is performed from the halt 
in quick time, by the following command : Right close, 
— Quick march ; Left close, — Quick march. 

In closing to the right, on the " Quick march," eyes 
are turned to the right, and each man carries his right 
foot about ten inches directly to his right, (or if the files 
are closed, to the next man's left foot,) and instantly 
brings up his left foot till the heel touches his right heel, 
and proceeds to take the next step in the same manner; 



13 

the whole with perfect precision of time, shoulders kept 
square, knees not bent, and in the true line on which the 
body is formed. At the word " Halt," the whole halt, 
turn their eyes to the front, and are perfectly steady. 

MARCHING STRAIGHT-FORWARD. 

To march " Straight-forward" is of the utmost conse- 
quence, and the Instructor will take the greatest care to 
make his squad perfect in this essential object ; for this 
purpose he will often place himself behind the flank file 
by which the squad is to move in marching ; he will 
then command " march," and, remaining in his place, 
will direct the advance of the squad, by keeping the 
flank file always in a line with the points upon which he 
has directed it to march. It is also from the rear that 
the leaning back of the soldier, and the bringing forward 
or falling back of a shoulder, are soonest perceived ; faults 
which, if not instantly rectified, will create confusion in a 
line ; where one man, by bringing forward a shoulder, 
may quite change the direction of the march. In short, 
it is impossible to labor too much at making the soldier 
more straight-forward, keeping always the same front as 
when he commenced his march. This is effected by 
moving solely from the haunches, keeping always the 
body steady, the shoulders square, and the head to the 
front ; and it will be attained without difficulty by a strict 
attention to the rules given for marching, and a careful 
observance of an equal length of step, and an equal ca- 
dence, or time of march. 

Right or Left Turn must be often ordered on the 
march, in order to practice divisions when moving in 
file, to front and move forward without halting ; or when 
moving in front, to make them move on in file. 

Right or Left-about Turn, changes the front on the 
march without halting. On the word "turn," each indi- 
vidual soldier, without changing step or cadence, comes 
to the right or left-about on his own ground, and in his 
own person, performing the movement in the time prescri- 
bed for three distinct paces, then marking time till he 
receives the word " forward," when he resumes the full 
pace to the front. 



14 

INCLINING, 

When the squad is marching to the front, and it is 
desired to take an oblique direction, the word " Right, 
or left half- turn" is given, and the men move on the 
oblique lines upon which they are individually placed 
in echellon, as described in the half facings. When it 
is intended to move to the original front without halting, 
the word " Front turn" is given, when each man will 
turn his body to the front, and move forward without 
checking the pace. During the incline the dressing is 
to that hand to which the incline is made; therefore, 
when a division is moving by the right half-turn, the 
right hand man must pay particular attention to the length 
of pace, and to move straight on the line he took up when 
he made his half-turn, as the accuracy of his movement 
assists very much in keeping the division in its proper 
position. The other files must be careful that their right 
arms do not get beyond the centre of the men's backs 
who are on their right ; and if they keep this position, 
their right feet will just clear the left of the preceding 
file. 

The instruction for the incline should commence on 
a single rank without arms. 

THE DOUBLE MARCH. 

The directions for the march already given, apply in 
a great degree to this step, which is 150 steps in the 
minute, each of 36 inches, making 450 feet in a minute. 

On the word " Double march" the whole step off 
together with the left feet, keeping the heads erect, and 
the shoulders square to the front ; the knees are a little 
bent, the ball of the foot only need be brought to the 
ground. The body is more advanced than in the other 
marches ; the arms hang with ease down the outside of 
the thigh, as in the quick march. 

The greatest care must always be taken that the pupil 
or recruit shall step off at and preserve the full pace of 
36 inches, which can be done with ease, if the soldier is 
properly placed in position, as directed in p. 6, and that 
the weight of the body inclines well forward on the fore 
part of the feet. 



15 

DIFFERENCE OF STEP. 

The word " March," given singly, at all times denotes 
that " Slow time" is to be taken ; when the " Quick," 
or " Double march" is meant, the word " Quick" or 
" Double," will precede the word " March." Recruits, 
or pupils, should be much practiced in changing the time 
on the march, except from "Double" to "Slow," which 
should never be done without a previous halt. 

Three or four pupils or recruits in one rank, with 
intervals of twelve inches between them, should be prac- 
ticed in the different steps, that they may acquire a firm- 
ness and independence of movement. 

MEASUREMENT OF STEP. 

Plummets, which vibrate the required times of march 
in a minute, are of great utility, and can alone prevent or 
correct uncertainty of movement ; they must be in the 
possession, and constantly referred to by each instructor 
of a squad. The several lengths of plummets, swinging 
the times of the different marches in a minute, are as 
follows : 

In. Hun. 

Slow time, 75 steps in the minute, 24 96 

Quick time, 108 " " 12 3 

Double march, 150 " " 6 26 

A musket-ball suspended by a string which is not sub- 
ject to stretch, and on which are marked the different 
lengths, will answer the above purpose, and should be 
frequently compared with an accurate standard in the 
adjutant's or sergeant-major's possession. The length of 
the plummet is to be measured from the point to the 
centre of the ball. 

CLOSE ORDER. 

Six or eight pupils or recruits will now be formed in 
rank, at close files, each lightly touching to the dressing 
hand, with a steady, well drilled soldier on their flank to 
lead, and are to be instructed as follows : 

DRESSING WHEN HALTED. 
Dressing is to be taught equally by the left as by the 



16 

right. On the word " Dress," each individual will cast 
his eyes to the point to which he is ordered to " dress," 
with the smallest turn possible of the head, but preserv- 
ing the shoulders and body square to their front. The 
whole person of the man must move as may be necessary, 
and bending backward or forward is not to be permitted. 
He must take short, quick steps, thereby gradually and 
exactly to gain his position, and on no account be suffered 
to attempt it by any sudden or violent alteration, which 
must infallibly derange whatever is beyond him. The 
faces of the men, and not their breasts or feet, are the 
line of dressing. 

Each man is to be able just to distinguish the surface 
of the face of the second man beyond him. The faults 
generally committed by the soldier in dressing are, pass- 
ing the line ; the head too forward and body kept back ; 
the shoulders not square ; the head turned too much. 
To avoid these the following instructions will be observed 
in the drill of pupils or recruits : 

The two right-hand men will be moved up a pace and 
a half ; the instructor will then give the word "Right 
dress," when the third pupil or recruit will take a pace 
to the front with the left foot, and shuffle up into line 
with the two points on his right, taking up his touch and 
dressing at the same time ; the instructor standing clear 
to the right of the two points, when he sees that the 
pupil or recruit is properly dressed, and the touch perfect, 
give the word " Eyes front," that heads may be replaced 
and remain square to the front. 

When every recruit, individually, has practiced, and 
is perfect in his dressing up, both by right and left for- 
ward, he must be taught to dress up and back together, 
taking care that the touch is always preserved, and after- 
ward the whole squad together. 

No rank or body ought ever to be dressed, without the 
person on its flank appointed to dress it, determining, or 
at least supposing a line on which the rank or body is to 
be formed, and for that purpose taking as the object a 
point beyond the distant or outward flank ; his dressing 
must then be made gradually and progressively from the 
inward flank toward the outer one. 



17 
FILE MARCHING. 

T % ^ > Face. — The recruits must first face, and then 
Left S . 

be instructed to cover each other exactly in file, so that 
the head of the man immediately before may conceal the 
heads of all the others in his front. The strictest ob- 
servance of all the rules for marching is particularly 
necessary in marching by file, which is first to be taught 
at the slow time, and afterwards in quick time. 

On the word " March/' the whole are immediately to 
step off together, gaining at the very first step thirty 
inches, and so continue each step without increasing the 
distance between each recruit, every man locking or 
placing his advanced foot on the ground, before the spot 
from whence his preceding man had taken up his — no 
looking down, nor leaning backward, is to be suffered — 
the leader is to be directed to march straight forward to 
some distant object given him for that purpose, or recruits 
made to cover one another, during the march, with the 
most scrupulous exactness ; great attention must be paid 
to prevent them from marching with their knees bent, 
which they will be very apt to do at first from an appre- 
hension of treading upon the heels of those before them, 

WHEELING OF A SINGLE RANK FROM THE HALT. 

At the word " Right wheel," the man on the right of 
the rank faces to the right, on the word " March" they 
step off together, the whole turning their eyes to the left, 
(the wheeling flank,) except the man on the left of the 
rank, who looks inward. The outward wheeling man 
steps the usual pace of thirty inches, and the whole ob- 
serve the same time, but each man shortening his step in 
proportion as he is nearer to the standing flank on which 
the wheel is made ; during the wheel, the whole remain 
closed to the standing flank, that is, they touch without 
pressing; they must not stoop forward, but remain up- 
right. Opening out from the standing flank is to be 
avoided; closing in upon it, during the wheel, is to be 
resisted. 

On the word " Halt — Dress," each man halts imme- 
diately, and dresses to the standing flank. The dressing 
" 3 



18 

being completed, the squad receives the command " Eyes 
front." When the pupils or recruits are able to perform 
the wheel with accuracy in the slow time, they must be 
practiced in quick time. 

Nothing will tend sooner to enable the recruit to ac- 
quire the proper length of step, according to his distance 
from the pivot, than continuing the wheel without halt- 
ing for several circles, and also giving the word " Halt — 
Dress," at instants not expected, and when only a part 
of the circle is completed. 

WHEELING BACKWARD A SINGLE RANK. 

At the words on the "Right, backward wheel,' 7 the 
man on the right of the rank faces to his left. At the 
word " duick march," the whole step backward in quicrC 
time, and observe the same attention as in wheeling 
forward. The recruits should be first practiced to wheel 
backward at the slow step; and at all times it will be 
necessary to prevent them from hurrying the pace — an 
error soldiers are very liable to fall into, particularly in 
wheeling backward. This wheeling is necessary o 
preserve the covering of the pivot flanks when large 
bodies wheel from line into column for the purpose of 
prolonging the alignment. 

CHANGING THE DIRECTION UPON THE MARCH. 

When the rank is marching to the front, and is to 
change its direction to either flank, it receives the word 
"Right" (or "Left)"); upon which the outward file of 
the named flank continues to step out at the full pace, 
and the wheeling is performed by bringing the shoulder 
gradually round, and circling on the inward flank file, 
which marks time until the word " Forward," which is 
given by the commander as soon as he sees that the rank 
has gained the direction in which he intends it again to 
move forward. 



SECTION IV. 

INSTRUCTION FOR A SQUAD IN DOUBLE RANKS. 

Formation in Two Ranks. 
The recruits being thoroughly grounded in the fore- 



19 

going instructions, will now be practiced in two ranks ; 
the rear rank being formed at one pace, i. e. 30 inches 
from the front rank, each man covering correctly, and 
looking at the middle of the neck of his front rank man, 
to which points his attention must be particularly directed 
in all marches and wheelings. 

In file marching, in two ranks, the men of the rear 
rank must look to and regulate themselves by their front 
rank men. The squad, when marching in file, must be 
accustomed to wheel its head to either flank, each file 
following successively without alteration of distances. 
On this occasion each file makes a wheel on a pivot, 
movable in a very small degree, but without altering its 
time of march, or the eyes of the rear rank being turned 
from their front rank. 

The wheel backward need not be practiced on uneven 
ground, or when the divisions are stronger than eighteen 
files. In such cases the divisions may face about, wheel, 
and then " Halt— Front." 

OPENING AND CLOSING THE RANKS. 

The recruits being formed in two ranks, at close 
order, on the word " Rear rank, take order," the flank 
men on the right and left of the rear rank step back two 
paces, face to their right, and stand covered to mark the 
ground on which the rear rank is to halt, and dress at 
open order , every other man remains ready to move. On 
the word " March," the flank men front, and the rear 
rank falls back two paces, dressing by the right the in- 
stant it is in its place. 

On the word " Rear rank, take close order," the whole 
remain perfectly steady ; at the word " March," the rank 
closes within one pace. 

TO FORM FOUR DEEP. 

The division will be led off from the right by alternate 
files, right and left. When it is intended to form four 
deep, preserving the same front, the word " Form four 
deep" is given, on which the rear rank step back one 
pace ; and on the word " March," the left files double 
behind the right files, by taking one pace to the rear with 
the left feet, and one pace to the right with the right feet. 



20 

Hight, form Four Deep. — On this caution, the rear 
rank step back as before. On the word " March," the 
whole face to the right, and the left files, at the same in- 
stant, form on the right of the right files. 

Left, form Four Deep. — On this caution, the rear 
rank step back as before. On the word " March," the 
whole face to the left, and the left files — at the same in- 
stant form on the left of the right files. 

In all these formations the files preserve their proper 
order and place ; and two deep is re-formed from each of 
them by the word " Front ;" upon which the lines move 
up into line at their respective intervals. The rear rank 
immediately closes to the front. 

The word "■Halt" will precede the word "Front," if 
the division has been in movement. 

In moving to a flank file, marching may be adopted, if 
necessary, by the files leading out in their proper order 
upon the word "Form two deep;" and at the word "Re- 
form four deep," resuming their former places. 



SECTION V. 

PRACTICE OF CAVALRY MOVEMENTS ON FOOT. 

For this purpose the regiment is to be formed, and told 
off in the same manner as when mounted, and the same 
system will be pursued throughout. The officers are to 
be posted two paces in front of the squadron, and the 
rear rank at the like distance from the front rank. In 
increasing the front, the " Double time" will be used to 
represent the " Trot ;" also in the wheels, when the pace 
of manoeuvre is " Quick time." 

In the formations, one pace is to be allowed for a 
horse's length. 



21 



CHAPTER II. 

THE BROAD SWORD EXERCISE. 
SECTION I. 

THE BROAD SWORD EXERCISE— DISMOUNTED. 

The broad sword exercise for Cavalry, to be well per- 
formed, should be often practiced when dismounted, by 
companies or squadrons, formed in line ; the tallest men 
being placed on the right. When the line has been 
formed for drill, the Instructor gives word — " Eyes right 
and dress ;" "eyes front." The word "Stand at ease" 
having been given, the pupil is to draw the right foot 
back six inches, the greater portion of the body resting 
on the right leg ; the hands to be brought together in 
front of the body, the right hand to grasp the left. This 
is the position " Stand at ease." 

POSITION OF ATTENTION. 

The Instructor gives the word, " Attention," and the 
pupil springs to that position, body erect, arms hanging 
easily by the sides, palms of the hands turned to the 
front, heels together, and toes inclined outward. 

TO TAKE DISTANCE FOR SWORD EXERCISE. 

The right-hand man keeps his post ; the remainder 
left passage, dressing to the right, standing at open inter- 
val of about five or six feet apart, will then halt, eyes 
front. The word is then given, " Prepare for cavalry 
broad sword exercise." Each pupil or recruit steps from 
eighteen to twenty inches to the right, standing at open 
position, imitating that of being mounted. 

THE BROAD SWORD EXERCISE— MOUNTED. 

The sword exercise of cavalry has three divisions — 
3* 



22 

arranged in reference to the different combinations of the 
cuts and thrusts, whether against infantry, cavalry, or 
both. The motions are all performed by presenting a 
proper front in the direction whence the attack would be 
received ; and it is always from some quarter of the right 
or left side of the horse ; as it would be impossible to 
meet an opponent face to face while sitting naturally in 
the saddle ; but can only approach by passing side by 
side. In this view the motions will be made in direc- 
tions either on the right or left, where the adversary is 
supposed to be. 

Draw Sivords. — Bring the hand smartly across the 
body to the sword-knot, place it on the wrist, and give 
the hand a couple of turns inward, in order to make it 
fast, and at the same time seize the hilt and raise the 
sword-blade six inches out of the scabbard ; by a second 
motion extend the arm to the right, the point in an ele- 
vated position, edge to the right. 

One. — Bring the sword hand in front of the cheek ; 
sword erect, edge to the left. 

Tioo. — Bring the sword to the carry, by dropping the 
arm to the hip ; elbow and wrist horizontal, sword erect, 
with the edge to the front. 

SLOPE SWORD. 

Loosen the grasp of the handle, let the blade rest 
against the shoulder, with the edge of the blade-front 
sloping. 

FIRST DIVISION OF PRACTICE. 

Carry Sword. — Grasp the handle, and at the same 
time raise the sword from the shoulder perpendicularly. 



23 




No. 1.—GUARD. 




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32 




PARRIES ON THE RIGHT. 



GUARDS ON THE LEFT. 

The same as on the right, only defending the left side. 
First defending the left cheek: second, defending the 
right cheek, or neck ; third defending the left leg, (rear ;) 
fourth, defending the left leg, (front;) fifth, defending 
the bridle arm, or horse's hind quarters ; sixth, defending 
the bridle rein, or front part of the body ; seventh, de- 
fending the head. 

PARRIES ON THE LEFT. 

First, from rear to front with the back of the sword ; 
second, from front to rear. Carry sword ; slope sword. 



33 

SECTION III. 

SECOND DIVISION OF PRACTICE 

Is performed by cuts in succession, and giving points 
on the same side. The four first cuts and points to be 
given at infantry ; the remaining three points and cuts 
at cavalry. 

ATTENTION. 

Carry sword; Guard; Assault; Cut one; Point; Cut 
two ; Point ; Cut three ; Point ; Cut four ; Point ; Cut 
five ; Point ; Cut six ; Point ; Cut seven ; Point. 



SECTION IV. 

THIRD DIVISION OF PRACTICE 

Is performed by cuts in succession, and giving points 
on the reverse side. 

ATTENTION. 

Carry sword; Guard; Assault; Cut one; Point; Cut 
two ; Point ; Cut three ; Point ; Cut four ; Point ; Cut 
five ; Point ; Cut six ; Point ; Cut seven ; Point. Slope 
sword ; stand at ease. 



34 




35 

Attack. — Cut one, at the left cheek, or neck. 

Defence. — Form the first guard, defending the left 
cheek, or neck. 

Attack. — Cut two, at the right cheek, or neck. 

Defence. — Form the second guard. 

Attack. — Cut three, at the front part of the body. 

Defence. — Form the third guard. 

Attack. — Cut four, at the haunch, or bowing part of 
the leg. 

Defence. — Form the fourth guard. 

Attack. — Cut five, at the bridle arm, or left side of 
the body. 

Defence. — Form the fifth guard. 

Attack. — Cut six, at the sword arm, or right side of 
the body. 

Defence. — Form the sixth guard. 

Attack. — Cut seven, at the head, downward. 

Defence. — Come to the seventh guard. 



36 




O 
Pi 



37 

Attack. — First point, to the front, the back of the 
hand opposite the right cheek, the edge upward, pointing 
to the front. 

Defence. — Parry from rear to front, the point up- 
ward, the edge to the front. 

Attack. — Second point ; place the elbow inside the 
hip-bone, the edge upward, the point elevated " point ;" 
raise the wrist and lower the point. 

Defence. — Raise the sword hand high as the brow, 
the back of the sword to the front ; parry from front to 
rear. 

Attack. — Third point ; place the heel of the sword 
hand on the right hip-bone, the point elevated, the edge 
upward, " point;" raise the wrist and lower the point. 

Defence. — Raise the sword hand high as the brow, 
the back of the sword to the front ; parry from front to 
rear. 

THE LEFT ATTACK AND LEFT ENGAGE 

Are the same as the right, only attacking the left side. 
The guards and parries are the same, only on the left 
side. 



SECTION V. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS AND DIRECTIONS FOR 
SWORD EXERCISE. 

The exercise of the Broad Sword consists of seven 
Cuts, or directions of the edge ; the same number of 
Guards, or defensive positions ; three Points, or Thrusts, 
given with the edge up, and with two circular motions 
of the Blade, termed Parries ; therefore, whatever may 
be the Attack or Defence, it can only be formed by having 
recourse to some of the above movements, or a combina- 
tion of them. 

In "engaging" by which is meant the action of joining 
the sword of an opponent, either previous to his or your 
own attack, there should be only a slight pressure on his 
blade, so that the hand, or wrist, may be the more sus- 
ceptible of any motion he may make ; and though the 



38 

position is termed " Guard," affords protection at the mo- 
ment, it is merely considered as preparatory to an offen- 
sive or defensive movement, varying the latter according 
to the points liable to be attacked. 

In all attacks, whether Cuts or Thrusts, the motion 
ought to increase in speed, the impetus being at the last ; 
the same rule should be observed in stepping out to the 
" Second" and " Third Positions," but in recovering, the 
reverse is to be followed, as the first part is to be the 
quickest; and nothing can be of more importance than 
that the eye should follow those of an opponent, and 
slightly glance at the part at which you intend to cut or 
thrust — taking care never to look at your own sword, 
which will invariably follow the eye wherever you 
direct it. 

It is merely Drill Practice, making the assault by 
numbers; and although each cut has its guard, accord- 
ing to the number, which answers for both, yet it does 
not follow that the file on the defensive is always to have 
recourse to it, as he may frequently be enabled to secure 
himself more effectively, and quicker, by forming another 
guard. If, for example, he makes the Cut Six at the body, 
and his opponent, after defending by the Sixth Guard, re- 
turns the Cut One at the breast, then the Fifth Guard 
becomes the quickest movement of defence ; but if the 
opponent has defined by the Second Guard, previous to 
his return of the Cut One, then the First Guard is the 
soonest formed ; consequently, the First and Fifth Guards 
each defend the Cuts One or Five. The Second and 
Sixth Guards each defend the Cuts Two or Six, accord- 
ing as they may be high or low ; and if the Third or 
Fourth Guards are required for the defence of the leg, 
the arm must be extended, so that the force of the blade 
may receive the foible of the opponent's weapon, bearing 
well in mind, however, that in all cuts at the leg, when 
at the proper distance, the shifting of your own leg and 
delivering a cut at the same moment, becomes the most 
effective and advantageous defence ; and which is still 
more so to a tall man when engaged with another of 
lesser stature, or length of arm. The power of defence 
does not, in fact, consist so much in your own strength 
of position, as in effecting a decided quick movement in 



39 

that direction in which your opponent has the least 
power of resistance, especially in defending against the 
Point, when the First, Third and Fifth Guards are the 
most effective against the First and Third Point ; and 
the Second, Fourth and Sixth Guards against the Second 
Point : provided the wrist is previously so placed that 
the requisite Guards may be quickly executed. The * 
two last Parries must also be regulated by the position 
of the opponent's wrist, so that the bearing of your 
sword may tend to open his hand, and, if well judged 
and timely given, will disarm him, or so cripple his wrist, 
as to preclude even the capability of forming a defensive 
guard, or continuing the attack. 

If opposed to the Small Sword, have recourse to the 
Cuts Three and Four, directing them at the arm, by 
which means there is every probability of the cuts taking 
effect, as in thrusting, the arm must always come in 
range of the edge, before the point can be sufficiently 
advanced to reach the body. If the above cuts are 
quickly given and continued, they will be found advan- 
tageous in advancing against the Small Sword, as they 
form an attack and defence at the same instant ; but 
should the opponent be the most skillful and quickest, 
then it is best to retire while forming them, cautiously 
preserving the proper distance, so that each cut may just 
reach the fore-part of his arm. 

Thus far the observations are more particularly ap- 
plicable to the First Part of the Instructions, or when 
practicing on foot, though they may generally answer for 
exercise also when mounted ; and here the greatest at- 
tention should be paid to maintain the proper position 
and balance of the body, from which, by too great an 
exertion in delivering a Cut or Thrust, the Horseman 
may suddenly be thrown, and thereby lose the advan- 
tage of his skill in the use of the sword, by the natural 
efforts which he must make to regain his seat ; nor should 
he fail to have every confidence and dependence upon 
his Guard, without trusting to his avoiding an attack of 
an opponent by turning or drawing back the body to 
escape from it. 

In delivering a Thrust, very little force is necessary, 
when the horse is in a quick motion, as the extension of 



40 

the arm, with a good direction of the point, will be fully 
sufficient ; nor should a Cut, under the same circum- 
stances, be given too strong, as in both cases the impetus 
of the horse will give the effective force, or in the latter, 
the drawing of the edge can very frequently be applied 
with advantage, particularly when the point may not 
have taken effect, when, by a quick turn of the wrist, 
the edge is drawn along the face of your opponent, or 
any part which more immediately comes in contact with 
it. A similar advantage may be gained after forming a 
Guard, particularly the Second, with the point of the 
sword kept well forward. The forcing also of the edge 
can be resorted to, when very near and closely pressed 
upon by an adversary, by suddenly extending the arm, 
and directing the edge across the face, or where the open- 
ing is shown : in this case, however, the hand should 
not be carried more than absolutely requisite either to 
the Right or Left, so as not by too wide a movement, to 
offer an equal chance to your opponent. 

Where sufficient space of ground allows of choosing 
the point of attack, you should endeavour to turn this to 
your own advantage, if not, at all events to avoid its being 
made on your Left Rear ; when change of position will 
bring you upon an equality with your opponent, either 
by making a sudden halt, so as to allow him to pass, then 
pressing upon his Left Rear, or by turning quickly to the 
left-about, and thereby having your right also opposed to 
his. Should you be prevented from doing this, and he 
still keep upon your Left, you must bear up as close as 
possible to him, otherwise your opposition will be in- 
effectual ; for in his situation, by keeping at the proper 
distance from you, his Cut will reach, when yours cannot, 
and consequently you are reduced to the defensive alone. 
In meeting an opponent on the Left Front, turn sharply 
to the left on your own ground, which brings you imme- 
diately with your Sword-arm free, and at liberty to act 
upon his Left ; and in meeting him upon the Right-front, 
press his horse quickly on, by a sharp turn to the Right, 
gain his Left Rear, or, if pursued, endeavor to keep your 
adversary on the Right Rear, when the distance will be 
always in your favor, and you may by the Rear Cut 
(Sixth, by turning the body well to the Right Rear) 



41 

and Point, keep checking his advance with impunity. 
When attacked by more than one, you will naturally 
endeavor to keep them either on the Right or Left ; but 
when they have been enabled to place themselves on 
both sides, press close upon the left opponent, and keep 
the right one at a distance. 

Although a regular mode is laid down for drawing the 
Sword, yet occasional practice should be given both on 
Foot and Horseback, to come to the Guard immediately, 
and at any required point, without going through the 
Parade Motions, &c, which will prepare the Swords- 
man for any sudden attack of an enemy. 

The defence or attack against the Lance, must depend 
greatly upon the Rider : for, admitting that the Lancer 
is equally well mounted, and skillful in the management 
of his horse, he will always endeavor to keep at such a 
distance as to be out of your reach, while he can easily 
make good his Thrust, from the greater length of the 
Lance than that of the Sword; and he will very frequently 
succeed in directing his point at your horse, which, be- 
coming unruly from the pain of a wound, will leave you 
exposed to the attack of your opponent. You must, 
therefore, invariably endeavor to gain his Right Rear, 
when he is less able to attack or defend, as his position, 
from its being so contracted, becomes weak ; whereas, 
if he has the advantage of resting his Lance upon the 
bridle-arm, he can lengthen or shorten his Thrust with 
facility and quickness. If engaged on his Left, the ob- 
ject must be to keep out of distance of his Lance, watch- 
ing the opportunity to close, either by having previously 
formed a defence, or by bearing the Lance out of the 
line. In all cases, your horse should be well accustomed 
to the waving of the Lance, without which, no skill of 
yours, either in the use of the Sword, or in that of riding, 
can be of much service to you. 

When opposed to Infantry, endeavor to meet an oppo- 
nent on your Right ; as every Guard parries the point of 
a sword, so will each defend the point of a bayonet, 
taking care that the force of your own weapon meets the 
foible of your opponent's ; consequently, it is the bayonet 
which must be struck ; and supposing the attack to be 
directed, as usual, with the opponent's left shoulder ad- 
5 



42 

vanced, those Guards and Parries, which force the point 
of the bayonet to the front, are, in effect, the most power- 
ful, not from the strength of your mode of defence, but 
because the bearing acts in such a manner against your 
opponent as to render him less capable of resisting, or 
recovering the command of his weapon in time to de- 
fend himself or renew the attack. It gives you an oppor- 
tunity of following with a Cut or Thrust ; whereas, if 
you parry to the rear, that advantage is lost, unless you 
halt, which, of course, affords time to your opponent to 
take equal advantage of it also. In fact, very little exer- 
tion is sufficient to effect a strong parry, if it is made in 
the direction in which your horse is moving, and from 
the same cause, all Rear Parries are weak. Still, how- 
ever, as security is important, recourse must be had to 
them when they become requisite. In defending on your 
Left, a parry to the rear will, for the reason before stated, 
disorder your opponent's position, more than parrying to 
the front ; and every following Cut or Thrust must be 
instantaneous, as, though for the moment you may be 
able to oppose a bayonet, yet, from your opponent's 
having the advantage of both hands in the management 
of it, he may, if confident, guard sufficiently to enable 
him to fix his point. In advancing against Infantry, the 
Right Guard, hand high, leads well to the attack, and is 
ready for defence, or to take advantage of any opening. 
The instructors should, as much as possible, in their 
progressive directions to the recruit, impress upon his 
mind such occasional observations as become most ap- 
plicable. Opportunities of thus explaining may often be 
taken during the pauses of rest, as no squad should be 
kept too long either in positions or movements ; and when 
any recruits are more deficient than the rest, the whole 
should be made to cease for the moment, and only those 
who are wrong be required to correct their error. 



43 



SECTION VI 

BALANCE PRACTICE AND EXTENSION MOTIONS FOR 
INFANTRY. 

First Position in Three Motions. 

One. — Move the hands "smartly to the rear, the left 
grasping the right arm just above the elbow, and the right 
supporting the left arm under the elbow. 

Two* — Make a half face to the left, turning on the 
heels, so that the back of the left touches the inside of 
the right heel ; the head retaining its position to the 
front. 

Three. — Bring the right heel in the hollow of the left 
foot — the right foot pointing to the front ; shoulders 
square to the left, and the weight of the body resting on 
the left leg. 

Second Position in Tioo Motions. 

One* — Bend the knees gradually, keeping them as 
much apart as possible, without raising the heels or 
changing the erect position of the body. 

Tivo. — Step out smartly with the right foot about 18 
inches in a line with the left heel ; the weight of the body 
remaining on the left leg. 

Balance Motions. 

One. — Move the right foot about 8 inches to the rear 
of the left heel, the toe lightly touching the ground, with 
the heel perpendicular to it, forcing the knees well apart. 

Two. — Raise the body gradually by the extension of 
the left leg. 

Three. — Bend the left knee, resuming the position 
made previous to the second motion. 

Four. — Advance the right leg, and with a smart beat 
of the foot resume the " Second Position" from which 
the balance motions commenced, at " First Position" — 
extending both knees, draw the right heel up to the left. 



44 

Third Position in Two Motions. 

One. — Incline the right side to the front, so that the 
shoulder and knee are perpendicular to the point of the 
foot. 

Two. — Step out smartly to the front, about 36 inches, 
with the knees in a perpendicular position to the instep ; 
the left knee and foot kept straight and firm, the heels in 
a line, the body upright, the shoulders square to the left. 

Second Extension Motion. 
One. — Bring the arms to the front of the body, with 
the hands closed, and the knuckles uppermost, touching 
each other below the lower button of the waistcoat ; raise 
them gradually until the wrists, by bearing inward, touch 
the breast ; the elbows being kept up, then by forcing 
back the shoulders, the hands will be drawn apart, and 
the motion is completed by sinking the elbows, and 
smartly extending the fingers in a diagonal line, with the 
right wrist as high as the head, the shoulders kept down, 
and the thumb inclined to the right. For beginners, 
this motion must be divided by giving the word " Pre- 
pare" the first part; and remaining perfectly steady, 
when the hands are brought to the breast, ready to sepa- 
rate ; then give the word " One" for the motion to be 
completed. 

Two. — Close the right hand, and draw it to the 
shoulder, at the same time inclining the body forward, 
until the right elbow rests on the point of the knee, the 
left arm raising gradually and remaining extended as 
the body advances, so as to bring the wrist as high as the 
head, which must be well kept up. 

Three.— Come to the " Third Position." 
First Balance Motion. — Spring up to the position, 
as shown in the "First Balance Motion." 
Three.— Step out to the u Third Position." 
First Balance Motion. — Spring up as before. 
Ttoo. — Step out to the " Second Position." 
Single Attack. — Raise the foot and strike smartly on 
the ground. 

Double Attack. — Raise the right foot and beat it as 
before twice on the ground, first with the heel, then with 
the flat of the foot. 



45 

Advance. — Move the right foot forward about 6 inches, 
and place it smartly on the ground ; then bring up the 
left foot lightly about the same distance. 

Single Attack. — As before. 

Retire.— Move the left foot lightly to the rear about 
6 inches, the whole weight and balance of the body still 
continuing to rest upon it ; then move the right foot back . • 
the same distance, and place it smartly on the ground. ~g ^ 

Double Attack. — As before. ^ **£ 

Front. — Draw back the right foot, and resume the w l C| 
position of " Attention" ^ 

The object of the Spreading Positions and movements^'* *S$ 
is to give a free and active use of the limbs, preparatory^* 
to using the Sword. The instructor should prove thd^ §£$ 
firmness of the position, by bearing equally and firmly 
on the shoulders of the recruit during the changes in 
forming the " Second Position" and " Balance Motions ;" 
and when in the " First" of the " Second Extension Mo- 
tions," by taking hold of his right wrist with both hands, 
and bearing upon it in the direction of the left leg, in the 
line of which the right arm should be, if properly placed. 

Three. — Raise the upper part of the body, drawing in 
the elbow, and, when nearly upright, extend the right 
arm smartly, and open the hand, thereby resuming the 
position formed by the "First Motion." 

Four. — Raise the body by extending the right leg. 

Five. — Bend the right knee and advance the body, 
so as to resume the position in the "First Motion." 

First Position, — Spring up with the arms to the rear, 
and the heel close to the left, which forms the " First 
Position" as before described. 

Front. — Come smartly to the position of " Attention" 
bringing the hands and feet, in one motion, to their pro- 
per places. 

In the foregoing instructions the Positions and Move- 
ments, preparatory to using the Sword, have been ex- 
plained, giving a separate word of command for each 
motion respectively. The same positions may now be 
gone through, naming only the word of command the 
position or movement required, and distinguishing it by 
the numbers " One" " Two" &c. It is intended by this 



46 

to practice the recruit in changing from the different po- 
sitions readily, and without losing his balance, which 
will almost invariably rest on the left leg. 

Position by Numbers. 

One. — Raising the arm to the rear, and the right heel 
to front, come at once to the "First Position." 

Tioo. — Come to the "Second Position." 

Three. " " " Third Position." 

Two. " " " Second Position." 

One. " " "First Position," and making him 
also, in each position, move the right toe up and down, 
without its motion affecting the body. In all positions 
where both knees are bent, the more they are so, the 
better, as a greater spring and elasticity will be gained in 
forming quickly any other motion. The body must be 
generally balanced, and rest upon the left leg, by which 
means greater flexibility is allowed to the right leg in 
moving forward to gain distances upon an adversary, or 
vice versa in retiring from his reach. No precise length 
can be assigned in moving the right leg to the front in 
the " Third Position," as it depends upon the length of 
the stride of the person, but should never be beyond what 
may allow of his return to the " First" or " Second Po- 
sition" with quickness and perfect facility to himself. 



SECTION VII. 

SWORD EXERCISE FOR INFANTRY. 



SMALL SWORD CUT AND THRUST. 
Introductory Remarks. 

The recruit being perfectly instructed in the prepa- 
ratory movements, may now take the Sword, making 
him acquainted with the strong and weak parts of it ; 
the " Forte" (strong) being the half of the blade next the 
guard ; " Foible" (weak) the half toward the Point. 
Indeed a knowledge of their distinctions is very material, 
either in giving or guarding a Cut, as much depends on 
their proper application. From the guard upward, in 



47 

opposing the blade of an adversary, the strength decreases 
in proportion as it approaches the point, and vice versa, 
it increases from the point downward. The " Forte" 
ought always to gain the " Foible" of the opponent's 
weapon, and the Cuts should be given within 8 inches 
of the point, that the Sword may clear itself. The Sword 
should be held flexible and easy in the hand, but yet 
sufficiently firm to resist the Cut of an adversary, and 
to give a Cut or Thrust with proper force and precision. 
The middle knuckles are to be in the direction of the 
edge in all Cuts and Guards ; and the grip of the handle 
should be held by the thumb and fingers around it. 




SWORD EXERCISE. 



48 




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60 

When the attack and defence are perfectly understood 
by numbers, the tactician may Cut, Parry and Point after 
that without following the scientific system. 

SALUTE, MOUNTED. 
When a salute is to be given, the person or officer will 
invariably be at the position " Carry sword." A salute is 
performed by raising the hand, by a circular motion, high 
as, and opposite the chin, with the edge of the blade to 
the left, then stretching the arm out, and at the same 
time bringing the point of the blade in a line with the 
knee and foot, the edge to the right. The salute being 
made, the sword is recovered by bringing it back smartly 
to " Carry sword." 

SALUTE, INFANTRY. 

The same as when mounted, except that the left hand 
hangs easy, with the palm inward. When the salute is 
ended, come quickly to " Carry sword." 

RETURN SWORD.— TWO MOTIONS. 
Position will be at " Carry sword." Carry the sword- 
hand in the hollow of the left shoulder, the blade per- 
pendicular; capsize the sword over the left shoulder, to 
the rear — enter the blade into the scabbard six inches ; 
" One," drop the sword ; and, at the word " Two," carry 
the hand to the right side, in a direct line with the seam 
of the pantaloons. 

ATTACK AND DEFENCE ON FOOT, BY RANKS. 

The pupil or recruit being now complete in the forma- 
tion of the "Cuts," and their respective " Guards," may 
put them in practice according to a regular mode of ex- 
ercise, as follows : 

The whole are drawn up in two, four, or more ranks, 
so as to be well under the eye of the Instructor, with the 
distance of four paces between both ranks and files. In 
this formation the whole of the preceding drill may be 
gone through, either by separate words of command, or 
with a flugelman ; as the following movements of Attack 
and Defence, or any part of the exercise, either as front 
or rear rank files, may be performed without an oppo- 
nent. Being in two ranks, "Front ranks, right-about 
face." 



61 

PREPARE TO PERFORM THE ATTACK AND DEFENCE. 

The files opposite each other, in the first position, with 
sloped swords. In preparing to perform sword exercise, 

PROVE DISTANCE. 

The files " Prove distance" standing at the " First posi- 
tion," the point of each sword slightly touching the guard 
of the other, the hips kept well back, the front rank hav- 
ing their swords uppermost, and the rear rank give way 
or advance, if requisite, to the proper measure. " Slope 
swords," as before. 

DRAW SWORDS. 

Bring the hand smartly across the body to the sword- 
knot, place it on the wrist, and give the hand a couple of 
turns inward, in order to make it fast, and at the same 
time seize the hilt and raise the sword-blade six inches 
out of the scabbard ; by a second motion, extend the arm 
to the right, the point in an elevated position, edge to the 
right. 

One. — Bring the sword-hand in front of the cheek ; 
sword erect, edge to the left. 

Two. — Bring the sword to the carry, by dropping the 
arm to the hip, elbow and wrist horizontal, sword erect, 



the edge to the front. 



SLOPE SWORDS. 



Loosen the grasp of the handle, and let the back of the 
sword fall lightly on the shoulder, the arm remaining in 
the previous position, but the wrist a little bent upward. 



CARRY SWORDS. 

By a motion of the wrist and fingers, resume the grasp 
of the handle so as to bring the blade upright, as before. 

RETURN SWORDS. 

Carry the hilt to the hollow of the left shoulder, keep 
the blade perpendicular, and the back of the hand to the 
front ; then, by a sharp turn of the wrist, drop the point 
to the scabbard, turning the edge to the rear. At the word 
" One," drop the point of the sword into the scabbard six 
inches ; at the word " Two," loosen the hand from the 



62 

gripe ; at the word three, bring the hand smartly to the 
right side. 

PREPARE TO PERFORM SWORD EXERCISE. 

Being at the position of " Attention," draw swords, as 
before stated. 

Carry Swords. — Carry swords, as before stated. 
Slope Swords — As before stated. 

TAKE DISTANCE FOR SWORD EXERCISE. 

Right prove distance. Recover swords ; bringing the 
sword-hand in front of the face, edge to the left, sword 
erect. " Prove distance." Getting their distance, slope 
swords, as before. 

FRONT PROVE DISTANCE. 

Raise the sword as before, then by a second motion, 
step out to the " Third position," and extend the arm well 
to the front, heads to the right ; spring back to your first 
position. Slope swords, as before. 

Engage. — Step to your "Second position," balance 
yourself well on your left leg, forming an inside guard. 

Outside Guard. — Giving a single attack, turning the 
edge to the right, forming an " Outside guard." 

Inside Guard. — As before. 

One. — Cut one, directing the edge of the sword to the 
left front. 

1 wo. — Direct the edge of the sword to the right front. 

Three. — Directing the edge of the sword upward, cut- 
ting at the wrist. 

Four. — Directing the edge of the sword to the right 
front, cutting low at the haunch of the bowing part of 
the leg. 

Five. — Directing the edge of the sword to the left front ; 
cutting at the opponent's left side of the body. 

Six. — Cut horizontal to the right, at the opponent's 
right side. 

Seven. — Cut vertically downward, on the opponent's 
head or front part. 

First Point. — The back of the hand to be raised oppo- 
site the right cheek, edge upward, thrusting straight to 
the front. 



63 

Second. — The elbow inside of the hip, the edge of the 
sword upward, point elevated " Point f lower the point 
and raise the sword-hand. 

Third. — The heel part of the hand on the hip, the 
edge upward, the point in an elevated position. When 
this thrust is given, lower the point and raise the sword- 
hand. 

Parry. — First Parry ; the hand to be carried to the 
right, the sword erect ; parry from right to left. 

Second. — The hand to be raised opposite and above 
the cheek, the back of the sword to the left ; parry from 
left to right, with a circular motion, downward. 

Third.-— Same position as the second ; parry from right 
to left, with a circular motion, downward. 

Slope Sivords. — As before. 

The " Cuts" and " Guards" may now be combined ; 
and here it is more particularly intended to practice the 
pupil or recruit, in showing the guard for each cut, so as 
to impress it on his recollection. 

Guards. — First — At " First position." 

Left Cheek. — Defending the " Left cheek." 

Second Guard. — Defending the right cheek ; the 
sword-hand to be as high as the right shoulder, the point 
of the sword opposite and above the left eye, edge up. 

Third. — Sword-hand in front of the body, edge to the 
left, and point downward. 

Fourth. — Sword-hand in rear of the hip, the front of 
the sword being in front of the leg, edge to the right. 

Fifth. — Bring the sword-hand opposite and above the 
left shoulder, point downward, edge to the left. 

Sixth. — Carry the hand to the right, the sword-hand 
to be as high as the brow, the point of the sword to be 
opposite and above the right knee, the back of the sword 
to be on a line with the seam of the pants. 

Seventh. — Hand to be raised over the head, edge up- 
ward, the point to bear over the shoulder, in a sloping 
position. 



64 



CHAPTER XXX. 

MILITARY EQUITATION. 

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

Military Equitation, the principles of which are the 
same for all classes of Cavalry, consists in the skillful 
and ready application of the aids by which the Rider 
guides and controls the Horse in all his paces, and in a 
settled balance of the body, which enables him to pre- 
serve a firm seat in every variety of movement. 

The Aids in Horsemanship are, the motions and pro- 
per application of the bridle-hand and legs, to direct and 
determine the turnings and paces of the Horse. 

Military Equitation may be divided into three parts : 

First. — The complete Instruction of the Recruit upon 
a Trained Horse, from the earliest to the last lessons. 

Second. — The Training of the Horse by skillful and 
experienced men. 

Third. — The Practice of the Recruit, and Remount 
Horse at Close Files, in the elementary parts of Field 
Exercise, to prepare them for instruction in the Troop or 
Squadron. 

This art is indispensably requisite for the Military 
Horseman, in order that, being able to govern his horse 
by the aid of his legs and bridle-arm, he may have his 
right hand at full liberty for the use of his weapons, and 
be capable, on all occasions, whether acting singly or in - 
squadron, of performing with ease his various duties. 

With this view, both Men and Horses should be con- 
stantly practiced in the exercise of such lessons as will 
enable them either to move in a compact body, or to act 
singly or independently. 

The Rider, by constant attention, which is called forth 
in the practice of these lessons, will acquire intelligence 
and confidence; and the Horse, being accustomed to 
yield to the impulse he receives from the Rider, will be 
rendered supple, active and obedient. The health and 



65 

condition of men and horses, as well as regard for 
economy, demand that the greatest care be taken in 
their instruction and formation ; and that their lessons 
be proportioned to their strength and ability, so as neither 
to produce over-fatigue or disgust, nor to injure men or 
horses by too violent exertion. 



SECTION I 

INSTRUCTION OF THE RECRUIT. 

When the Recruits shall have been practiced in the 
elementary exercise of Marching, Facing, &c. on foot, 
and shall have attained a knowledge of usual military 
terms and commands, they will commence their lessons 
in riding. 

They may be instructed in small squads of 8 or 10, 
on trained horses, with stripped saddles and bridoons* 
The Recruits are taught to saddle and bridle for Riding 
Drill ; and also the proper manner of leading their 
horses. 

SADDLING. 

The saddle to be placed in the middle of the horse's 
back, the front of it about the breadth of a hand behind 
the play of the shoulder. 

The blanket, in Light Cavalry, to be well raised into 
the fork over the withers, by putting the arm under it. 

Girth. — To admit a finger between it and the horse's 
belly. 

Surcingle. — To lie flat over, and not tighter than the 
girth ; the upper rings in a line with the edge of the flap. 

Breast-plate. — The upper edge of the rosette, or 
leather, three fingers above the sharp breast-bone ; the 
breadth of the hand between it and the flat of the shoulder. 

BRIDLING. 

The bridoon touching the corners of the mouth, but 
not low enough to wrinkle them. 

LEADING THE HORSE. 

The reins of the bridoon being taken over the head 

7 



66 

are to be held with the right hand, the fore-finger be- 
tween them, near the rings of the bridoon ; the ends of 
the reins in the left hand, which hangs easily behind the 
thigh. 

When leading through a doorway, the soldier placing 
himself in front of the horse, taking one rein in each 
hand close to the ring of the bridoon, steps backward, 
taking care that the horse's hips and appointments clear 
the posts of the door. When the horse is through, he 
places himself on the near side as before, after coming to 
the halt. 

Stand at Ease, — Each soldier opposite the near 
shoulder of the horse, the right passed through the 
bridoon rein, which has been put over the head, and 
hangs on the neck. 

Attention, — The position of the man, as in Foot Drill, 
but holding the left bridoon rein near the ring of the bit 
with the right hand ; toes in a line with the horse's fore 
feet ; left hand hanging by the side. 

In Front of your Horses. — A full step forward, with 
the right foot turning to the right-about on the ball of it, 
taking the bridoon reins in each hand, near the rings of 
the bit, raising the horse's head to the right of the man's 
shoulder, and making the horse stand even. 

Dress. — When fronting the horse, dress to the left. 

Stand to your Horses.— A full step forward, with the 
right foot to the horse's near side, and face left-about on 
the ball of the right foot, pointing the same way as the 
horse at the Position of Attention. 



SECTION II. 

MOUNTING WITH STIRRUPS, IN FOUR MOTIONS. 

Prepare to Mount. — One. — Face to the right on the 
left heel, place the right foot opposite the stirrup, parallel 
to the side of the horse, heels six inches apart ; take the 
bridoon rein, equally divided, in the left hand, and the 
bit reins in the right hand, placing the little finger of the 
left between them, place the left hand below the right on 
the neck of the horse, about 12 inches from the saddle. 



67 

Two. — The right hand draws the reins through the left 
and shortens them, so the left has a light and equal feel- 
ing of both reins on the horse's mouth, the right hand 
remaining over the left. 

Three. — The right hand throws the rein to the off side, 
takes a lock of the mane, brings it through the left hand, 
and twists it around the left thumb ; the left hand closes 
firmly on the mane and reins; the right hand now quits 
the mane and lays hold of the left stirrup with the fingers 
to the rear. 

Four. — The left foot is raised and put in the stirrup, 
as far as the ball of it; the right hand is placed on the 
cantle, and the left knee against the saddle or surcingle ; 
the left heel is to be drawn back in order to avoid touch- 
ing the horse's side with the toe. 

Mount, {in Three Motions.) — One. — By a spring of 
the right foot from the instep rise in the stirrup, bring 
both heels together, knees firm against the saddle, heels 
drawn back a little, the body erect and partly supported 
by the right hand. 

Tivo. — The right hand moves from the cantle to the 
pommel, or off halter, and supports the body, while the 
right leg passes clear over the horse's quarters to the off 
side, the right knee closes on the saddle, and the body 
comes gently into it. 

Three. — The left hand quits the mane, and right the 
holster, the bridle-hand takes its proper position ; the right 
hand drops by the thigh, without stiffness, the back of 
the hand outward ; the right foot taking the stirrup with 
the help of hand or eye. 

Prepare to Dismount, (in Three Motions.) — One. 
— The right hand takes the rein above the left, the right 
foot quits the stirrup. 

Two. — The right hand holding the rein, the left slides 
forward upon it, about 12 inches from the saddle, feeling 
the horse's mouth very lightly. 

Three. — The right hand drops the reins to the off 
side, takes a lock of the mane, brings it through the left 
hand, and twists it round the thumb, the finger of the left 
hand closes upon it ; the right hand is then placed on 
the holster ; the body erect. 

Dismount, [in Four Motions.) — One. — Supporting 



68 

with the right hand and left foot, the right leg is brought 
gently, without touching either the horse's hind quarters 
or saddle, to the near side ; the right hand on the cantle 
to preserve the balance of the body, as in mounting. 

Two. — The body is gently lowered until the right toe 
touches the ground. 

Three.' — Resting on the right foot the left stirrup is 
quitted, and the left foot is placed in a line with the 
horse's hoofs ; the hands remain as in the former motion. 

Four — Both the hands quit their hold ; the soldier 
faces to the left on the left heel, and brings the body 
square to the front ; as he is turning, the right hand lays 
hold of the bridoon rein, near the ring of the bit, and 
raises the horse's head as high as the shoulder. 

POSITION ON HORSEBACK. 

The body balanced in the middle of the saddle ; head 
upright and square to the front ; shoulders well thrown 
back ; chest advanced ; upper part of the arms hanging 
down straight from the shoulder ; left elbow bent, <fcc. ; 
thigh stretched down from the hip ; the flat of the thigh 
well turned inward to the saddle ; knees a little bent ; 
legs hanging straight down. 

FITTING THE STIRRUP. 

The lower edge of the bar to be two finger-breadths 
above the upper edge of the heel of the boot for light 
Cavalry, and one inch higher for the heavy Cavalry 
saddles. 

FITTING THE BIT. 

The bit is to be placed in the horse's mouth so that 
the mouth-piece be one inch above the lower tusk, and 
two inches above the corner tooth in mares ; the head 
stall parallel to and behind the cheek-bone; the curb 
to be laid flat and smooth under the jaw, to admit one 
finger between it and the jaw-bone, and never tighter or 
looser, with a view to ease the horse's mouth. 

The nose-band beneath the bridoon head-stall, one 
finger to play between it and the nose. 

POSITION OF BRIDLE-HAND WITH THE BIT. 
The upper part of the arm hanging down straight from 



69 

the shoulder, the left elbow lightly touching the hip ; the 
lower part of the arm horizontal ; wrist rounded outwards ; 
the back of the hand to the front, the thumb pointing 
across the body ; the hand opposite the centre of the 
body, and three inches from it ; the bridoon-rein, when 
working with the bit, to be held in the full of the bridle- 
hand, passing under the long joint of the thumb, and over 
the long joint of the fore-finger, the top of the thumb 
firmly closed on the bit reins. 

The little finger of the bridle-hand has four lines of 
action, viz : 

1. Toward the breast. 

2. Toward the right shoulder. 

3. Toward the left shoulder. 

4. Toward the horse's head. 

LEAPING. 

For the Standing Leap, bring the horse up to the bar 
at an animated walk, halt him with a light hand on his 
haunches ; as he rises, feel the reins only enough to pre- 
vent their becoming slack ; when the horse springs, yield 
them entirely ; when the hind feet come to the ground, 
collect the horse again, resuming the usual position, and 
moving on at the same pace ; the body is to be inclined 
forward as the horse rises, and back as he lights. 

For the Flying Leap, the horse must not be hurried, 
or allowed to rush, but his head must be kept steadily to 
the bar, with a light hand. Position the same as in 
Standing Leap. 

Checking the horse violently, after he has made the 
leap, must be particularly avoided ; as the horse takes it 
as a punishment, when he ought to be encouraged, and 
becomes shy of the bar. 

The leaping of ditches should also be practiced. 

ON THE USE OF THE CARBINE AND PISTOL ON 
HORSEBACK. 

When the recruit has attained a degree of proficiency 
on foot, the Exercise of Arms on Horseback should form 
the lessons on drill. As it is necessary for him to acquire 
such dexterity in the use of his fire-arms as will enable 
him to load and discharge them, whilst his horse is in 



70 

motion, without annoying the animal, or being disturbed 
in his seat. 

It is found that the fire of the carbine to the left, and 
the pistol to the rear, are the most effective ; and that 
to the right with the carbine, and to the front with the 
pistol, is the least so. 

The fire of the Cavalry soldier is never to be had re- 
course to but in skirmishing ; and firing with the car- 
bine to the front is generally to be preferred, because, in 
that position the horse presents the best mark, and the 
rider is most covered from the shot of the enemy. The 
carbine, in most instances of skirmishing, is preferable to 
the pistol. There are situations, however, where the 
horseman may find the pistol useful, as when his sword 
is broken, or his sword-arm partially disabled. If, under 
these circumstances, he should be compelled to make a 
precipitate retreat, he may, by presenting his pistol, keep 
his enemy at bay ; although it would seldom be advi- 
sable for him to fire until his adversary should close upon 
him, and the effect of his fire would be nearly certain. 

CARBINE EXERCISE ON HORSEBACK. 

The squad for instruction is to be formed in a rank, 
entire, at double open file distance. 

Spring Carbine* — Take off the right-hand glove and 
lock-cover, putting it and the glove into the off holster, 
or shoe case ; swivel and unstrap the carbine, and seize 
it with the right hand at the gripe. 

Two. — Draw the carbine from the bucket, and, con- 
tinuing to grasp it in the full hand, bring it to the " Ad- 
vance," resting the hand upon the thigh, the barrel 
diagonally across the belly, the muzzle a little elevated, 
so that it be in line with the horse's left ear. 

In this position the carbine is carried by small detach- 
ments and advanced parties, when near the enemy, and 
by videttes on service, being that from which the soldier 
most readily prepares to fire, and which occasions the 
least fatigue. 

Prime and Load. — Place the carbine in the priming 
position, that is, in the full of the left hand, at the gripe, 
(without disturbing the position of the arm, or the pulling 
of the bridle in the horse's mouth,) keeping the carbine 



71 

in the same diagonal direction as the "Advance ;" place 
the thumb of the right hand behind the steel or hammer, 
the elbow a little turned out. 

Ttvo. — Open the pan. 

Handle Cartridge, — Carry the hand around to the 
pouch, and take hold of a cartridge. 

Two. — Draw out the cartridge and bite off the end. 

Prime. — Shake a little powder in the pan. 

Two. — With the three last fingers shut it, then seize 
the small of the butt. 

Load. — Raise the carbine with both hands, (without 
altering the position of either upon it,) clear over the hol- 
low between the holsters and the horse's neck, and carry 
the butt under the bridle-reins to the near side, (called 
" Casting About/') letting the carbine turn in both hands 
till the lock be to the left ; then permitting it to slide 
through the left hand until the muzzle be opposite the 
right breast, the right hand is brought up to the sight. 
In this position the carbine will be sustained principally 
by the swivel. 

Ttvo. — Shake the powder into the barrel, and then put 
in the paper, or balls, and lay hold of the ramrod with 
the forefinger and thumb. 

Draw Ramrod. — Draw out the ramrod, and put an 
inch of it into the muzzle. 

Ram Down Cartridge. — Ram down the charge. 

Two. — Drive it home by two distinct beats of the rod. 

Return Ramrod. — Return the ramrod, and hold it 
between the forefinger and thumb. 

Advance Arms. — Raise the Carbine up with the left 
hand, and seize it at the gripe with the right, carry it 
over the horse's neck and place it at the " Advance ;" 
the bridle hand resumes its position. 

Ready. — Place the Carbine in the left hand in the 
priming position ; cock ; then seize the small of the butt 
with the right hand. 

Front Present. — Raise the Carbine to the " Present" 
with both hands, and place the butt firmly against the 
hollow of the right shoulder ; lean the head in order to 
take a steady aim. In raising the Carbine to the " Pre- 
sent," care must be taken not to disturb the feeling of 
the bridle in the horse's mouth ; and with this view the 



72 

motions must be made as smoothly and quietly as pos- 
sible ; the body may lean a little forward, and, if neces- 
sary, the reins may be a little lengthened. 

Fire. — Pull the trigger, still keeping the Carbine at 
the " Present," and the eye fixed on the object. 

Prime and Load. — Place the Carbine in the priming 
position, and seize the cock with the forefinger and 
thumb. 

Two. — Half cock the Carbine, keeping hold of the 
cock. The remaining motions as before. 

Ready — As before. 

Left Present. — Raise the Carbine to the Present, to 
the left, with the right hand ; and, in order to steady it 
and ensure a good aim, rest the barrel on the left arm 
near the elbow, which, for this purpose, is to be raised 
almost as high as the shoulder. 

Fire. — Prime and Load as before. 

Ready — As before. 

Right Present — Turn the body to the right, but 
without deranging its balance, and raise the Carbine to 
the Present, with the right hand placing the butt firmly 
against the hollow of the right shoulder. The bridle 
hand to preserve its usual place. 

Fire — As before. 

Shut Pan. — Shut the pan and seize the small of the 
butt. 

Advance Arms — As before. 

N. B. — The exercise should next be gone through in 
quick time. 

From the Advance the Carbine may be carried or 
slung. 

Carry Carbine. — Without altering the position and 
grasp of the right hand, raise the Carbine and place the 
butt of it in the hollow of the thigh, when previously 
rested ; the muzzle to be carried to the front so as to be 
in a line clear of the horse's neck, and leaning rather 
forward, the elbows near the side. In this position the 
Carbine is carried by the advanced guard in marches of 
parade. 

Sling Carbine. — This position is performed by quietly 
dropping the Carbine with the muzzle downward be- 



73 

hind the thigh, and leaving it " slung," or suspended by 
the swivel only. 

From being slung, the Carbine may be brought at 
once to any of the foregoing positions, or may be strapped. 

Strap Carbine. — Seize the Carbine at the gripe, and 
fix the muzzle in the bucket ; then strap and unspring 
the Carbine, and drop the swivel ; put on the lock cover 
and right hand glove, and let both resume their usual 
position. 

PISTOL EXERCISE ON HORSEBACK. 

Draw Pistol. — Take off the right hand glove, unbut- 
ton the flounce, and push forward the cloak, or draw 
back the sheepskin and shabraque, according to the equip- 
ment, and seize the butt of the pistol with the right hand 
under the left arm. 

Two. — Draw the pistol carefully and bring it at once 
to the position in whicn the sword is "carried," the 
muzzle a little to the front, the cock resting in the hollow 
between the thumb and the hand, the lower fingers re- 
laxed and extended along the butt. This position is 
called the " Advance." 

The commands and motions for priming and loading, 
are made as directed for the Carbine. 

Front Present. — From the left hand raise the pistol 
with the right till the breech be nearly as high, and in a 
line with the right eye, with the muzzle lowered to the 
object, the hand lightly grasping the butt, the arm a little 
bent and without stiffness, in order to keep the pistol 
steady, and to avoid the shock of a recoil. 

Fire. — Prime and Load as before. 

Ready — As before. 

Left Present. — Resting the pistol on the left arm as 
before directed for the Carbine. 

Fire. — Prime and Load as before. 

Right Present. — The pistol is raised, carried to the 
right and levelled as directed in presenting to the front. 

Fire. — Prime and Load as before. 

Rear Present. — Carry the pistol as far toward the 
rear as the body turned in that direction will admit; 
take the aim and hold the pistol in the same manner as 
directed for presenting to the front. 



74 

Fire, fyc. — As before, half cock, shut pans, and 

Return Pistol. — Drop the muzzle under the bridle 
arm, and place the pistol carefully in the holster. 

Two. — Bring the right hand to its position by the 
thigh. 

N. B. — Preparatory to firing to the right and left with 
both Carbine and Pistol, the position of the horse must 
be changed one fourth round, so the men will not be in 
the direction of each other's fire. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CARBINE AND PISTOL EXERCISE, 
SECTION I. 

CARBINE EXERCISES ON FOOT. 

As soon as the Cavalry recruit shall have been suffi- 
ciently instructed in the elementary exercise of Marching, 
Facing, &c. he is to be taught the exercise of the Car- 
bine on foot, and to be carefully instructed in all the 
details connected with priming, loading and firing with 
ball, the whole of which are equally essential to be un- 
derstood by the Cavalry, as by the Infantry soldier. 

The exercises of the Carbine and Pistol on horseback 
are to be commenced when the recruits shall have made 
a sufficient progress in horsemanship, as directed in the 
Instructions on Military Equitation. 

MANUAL EXERCISE. 

The recruit having his Carbine slung by the swivel, 
he is to take it in his right hand near the lock, his little 
finger touching the feather spring, holding it by his right 
side at the full extent of the arm, the muzzle elevated, 
but straight to the front. This position, whether the 
Carbine be slung or not, is called " the Trail." 

Advance Arms. — Raise the Carbine with the right 
hand as high as the hip, and seize it with the left at the 
" gripe ;" that is, with the full hand round the barrel and 
stock, with the little finger touching the feather spring 



75 

of the lock ; the lock downward ; the muzzle raised from 
the level, but straight from the front ; then " unspring" 
by disengaging the swivel from the Carbine, and seize 
the small of the butt with the right hand. 

Two. — Drop the Carbine to the position of the " ad- 
vance," steadying it with the fingers of the left hand ; 
the arm square across the body. At the " advance," the 
Carbine is supported by the right hand against the right 
side, the three last fingers under the cock, the forefinger 
under the guard, and the thumb above the guard. 

Three. — Bring the left hand to its place on the left 
side. 

Secure Arms. — The thumb of the right hand is placed 
under the cock ; the Carbine is raised about two inches, 
and the muzzle is brought forward from the arm about 
four inches, at the same time the left hand is brought 
briskly across the body, and seize the Carbine at the 
u gripe." 

Two. — Carry the Carbine across the body to the left 
side, and bring it down under the left arm with the 
muzzle straight to the front, and about a foot lower than 
the butt, at the same time withdraw the right hand. 

Advance Arms. — Lower the butt and raise the muzzle 
of the Carbine to an upright position against the left side, 
the right hand across the body lays hold of the small of 
the butt. 

Two. — Carry the Carbine to the advance, and steady 
it with the fingers of the left hand. 

Three. — Bring the left hand to its place on the side. 

Present Arms. — Raise the Carbine from the advance, 
and seize it with the left, as directed for the first motion 
of the secure. 

Two. — The right hand raises the Carbine to the horse, 
grasping the small of the stock, the left hand quitting its 
position at the "gripe," is placed above the lock, the 
fingers circling the stock, the little finger touching the 
feather spring, and the side of the hand resting on the 
guard, the point of the thumb as high as and opposite to 
the left eye, and both elbows close. 

Three. — The Carbine is brought down to the extent 
of the right arm, the butt projecting, letting the muzzle 
fall into the bend of the left, the lock turned a little out- 



76 

ward, and the cock raised against the knuckle joints of 
the first fingers, this and the second finger only resting 
on the small of the stock, the others shut in the hand, 
the point of the middle finger of the left hand touching 
the feather spring, and first finger close to the middle 
one, the others shut in the hand, the point of the thumb 
touching the same in the centre of the flap of the trow- 
sers ; the right at the same instant drawn back about six 
inches behind the left heel, both knees straight. 

Advance Arms. — Carry the Carbine to the advance, 
steadying it with the fingers of the left hand. 

Two. — Bring the left hand to its place by the side. 

Port Arms. — At one motion throw the Carbine to a 
diagonal position across the body, the lock to be out- 
ward and at the height of the breast, the barrel opposite 
the left shoulder, the right hand grasps the small of the 
butt, just below the right breast, the left holds the Carbine 
at the gripe, the thumbs of both hands pointing toward 
the muzzle. 

N. B. In this position the pan is open or shut at one 
motion, for the purpose of the inspection of the locks, 
flints, &c. 

Advance Arms. — Bring the Carbine down from the 
port to the advance, the left hand steadying it. 

Two. — Bring the left hand to its place by the side. 

Support Arms. — The right hand is to be brought for- 
ward and raised, retaining its hold of the Carbine as at 
the advance, the thumb three inches below the bottom 
of the jacket ; the arm to be kept near the body, the 
guard of the Carbine turned a little to the front, and the 
muzzle to the right rear. 

Stand at Ease. — In standing at ease with the arms 
at the support, the left hand to be brought across the 
body and laid over the right. 

At the word " attention" the left hand is to be quickly 
brought down, and the Carbine dropped at once to the 
advance. 

Spring Carbine. — The Carbine is raised from the 
advance, by the right hand, as high as the hip, with the 
lock turned downward and seized by the left at the 
gripe. 



77 

Two. — The Carbine is sprung by the right hand, 
seizing the swivel and securing it through the ring. 

Three. — The right hand seizes the Carbine at the 
gripe and drops it down to the "Trail," the left hand 
quits at the same time. 

PLATOON EXERCISES. 

The squad being at the advance, will receive the com- 
mands and instructions for the platoon exercise. 

Prime and Load. — Bring the Carbine to the priming 
position, making a quarter face to the right in this posi- 
tion ; the Carbine is to rest against the hollow of the right 
side, the muzzle raised as high as the peak of the helmet 
or cap, but pointing directly to the front, the left hand 
across the body, grasping the Carbine at the swell, and 
the thumb of the right hand beside the steel, the elbow a 
little turned out. 

Two. — Open the pan, extending the fingers along the 
lock plate. 

Handle Cartridge. — Carry the hand to the pouch, 
and take hold of a cartridge. 

Two. — Draw it out and bite off the end. 

Prime. — Shake some powder into the middle of the 
pan, but not more than will half fill it ; place the last 
three fingers behind the steel, holding the Carbine be- 
tween the thumb and fingers. 

Two. — Shut the pan and seize the small of the butt 
between the last three fingers and the hand. 

Load. — Turn the Carbine smartly around to the load- 
ing position in which the barrel is turned toward the 
front, the toe of the butt resting against the outside of the 
left leg, the muzzle pointed forward and opposite to the 
middle of the body, the right hand holding the cartridge, 
is placed against the muzzle covering the sight. 

Two. — Shake the powder into the barrel, put in the 
paper and the ball, and then take hold of the ramrod 
with the forefinger and thumb. 

Draw Ramrod. — Draw out the ramrod and put it an 
inch into the barrel with the arm extended. 

Ram Down Cartridge. Push the cartridge to the 
bottom. 

Two. — Strike it twice smartly with the ramrod. 
8 



78 

Return Ramrod. — Draw the ramrod out of the barrel 
and return it into the pipe without loss of time, forcing 
it well home, then face to the proper front, the forefinger 
and thumb still holding the head of the ramrod. 

Advance Arms. — Throw the Carbine across the body 
at one motion to the advance, and instantly quit the left 
hand. 

Ready. — By a brisk motion bring the Carbine at once 
to the priming position, then quickly place the thumb of 
the right to the cock, the finger under the guard, cock 
the Carbine, and step back six inches with the right foot. 

Present. — Raise the Carbine to the " Present," and 
look steadily along the barrel, place the forefinger before 
the trigger, but avoid touching it. 

Fire. — By the action of the finger alone, and by a 
gradual but firm pressure pull the trigger, and remain 
looking along the piece. 

Half Cock Arms. — Bring the Carbine to the "pri- 
ming" position, place the thumb on the cock with the 
fingers underneath the guard, and half cock the Carbine. 

Shut Pans. — Shut the pan and seize the small of the 
butt. 

Advance Arms. — Bring the Carbine to the "Advance" 
and front, bringing the right foot up to the left. 

When the instructor considers the squad sufficiently 
expert in the exercise in slow time by numbers, he will 
cause it to be performed in quick time without numbers, 
by following words of command alone, always coming 
to the " Advance" after loading, but making ready after 
the first fire. Prime and Load, Ready, Present, Fire. 

Care must be taken that the distinct motions are not 
confused by improper haste. 

When a certain number of rounds are to be fired, the 
caution is given — Fire ( — ) Rounds, and advance arms. 

From the " Present," the firing may be stopped by the 
words " As you were," on which the finger is carefully 
withdrawn from before the trigger, and then the Carbine 
is brought down to the priming position. 

The Carbine may be again presented, or may be half 
cocked and advanced. 



79 

EXPLANATION OF THE POSITION FOR EACH RANK 
IN FIRING. 

Cavalry, when dismounted, is always to be formed in 
two ranks. 

The Front Rank Man, on receiving the word ready, 
brings his Carbine to the "Priming position," and "cocks," 
stepping back six inches with right foot. After having 
fired, the right foot is to be brought up square with the 
left, and the priming and loading proceeded with as be- 
fore directed. 

Ready. — At the " Priming position" as before. 

Present. — As before. 

Fire. — As before, and when fired, remain looking 
along the barrel at the object aimed at, until " one, two" 
may be distinctly told ; then proceed to prime and load 
without loss of time, and make ready. 

The rear rank man, on receiving the command 
" Ready," cocks his Carbine, taking a moderate pace to 
the right, with the right foot only. 

Present — As before. 

Fire. — As before. Bring the Carbine to the priming 
position with the thumb on the cock and the fingers un- 
derneath the guard, preserving the quarter face to the 
right. 

Two. — Half cock the Carbine, keeping hold of the 
cock, then proceed with the priming and loading motions. 

Observe. — From the "Present," the squad may be 
ordered " As you were," on which command the finger 
is to be carefully withdrawn from before the trigger. In 
this position the Carbine may be half cocked, the fore- 
finger pressing lightly on the trigger, and lowering the 
cock till the edge of the flint touches the hammer, then 
quit the trigger and draw back the cock to the catch of 
the half cock ; also springs may be eased by opening 
pans and letting the cock down. 

When brought to the " Advance," both ranks bring 
the right foot back to the left. 

It being unsafe for the rear rank to fire with short 
Carbines, it may have equal practice in firing by alter- 
nate files, as follows: At the command "Right," or 
" Left Files Ready," the front rank steps out a short pace 
to the front, followed by the rear rank men, who after- 



80 

ward step a long pace obliquely to the right of their file 
leaders. After " Present" and " Fire," the word " Ad- 
vance Arms" is given, on which the rear rank men step 
a pace obliquely to the rear with the left foot, and both 
step back into their places with the right; the word 
" Load" may then be given, and the other files may do 
the same. 



CHAPTER V. 

POST PRACTICE. 
SECTION I 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

The recruit, after becoming skilled in the Cavalry 
exercise, should be instructed to thrust and cut at Rings, 
and Heads attached to the Posts. This practice will give 
a confidence and precision in the application of the edge 
and point, as well as the requisite celerity and judgment 
of time and measure ; as each Post, having an arm 
attached to it, to represent a sword, lance, or bayonet, the 
swordsman is, consequently, forced to turn it out of the 
line by some mode of defence, before he can make his 
own offensive movement, both of which must be made 
with great quickness, and should, therefore, be practiced 
first at a walk, and so on, progressively, to a canter, &c. 
The six Machine Posts may be numbered according to 
each practice, as the files have regular movements in 
acting against the Heads and Rings. The Posts are 
placed in two lines, three Posts in each line ; they are 
thirty-six feet apart, with the same distance between the 
posts. 



81 



O 

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2 



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O 
i— < 

O 

PL, 

o 



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Cm 

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Eh 



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o 




82 

RIGHT PRACTICE. 

First Post. — The recruit is mounted, and at the 
position of " Slope swords.*' Advance, carry swords, en- 
gage ; parry from front to rear the lower arm, and give 
point through the ring on the upper arm ; drop the ring 
to the rear, and come to " Slope swords." 

Second Post. — Carry swords, engage ; parry from 
rear to front the upper arm, and give second point through 
the ring on the lower- arm, drop the ring, &c., and come 
to " Slope swords." 

Third Post. — Carry swords, engage ; parry from 
front to rear the arm, and give third point at the leather 
head on the top of the Post ; slope swords. 

Fourth Post. — Carry swords, engage ; parry from 
front to rear the arm, and cut five at the neck, or stick 
between the Head and Post ; slope swords. 

Fifth Post. — Carry swords, engage ; make first 
parry from right to front, and cut six at neck; slope 
swords. 

Sixth Post. — Carry swords, engage ; parry from 
front to rear at infantry, cut three ; slope swords. 

LEFT PRACTICE.— TAKING THE POSTS IN REVERSE 

ORDER. 

Sixth Post, Left Parry, and Cut Four. 
Fifth " Second Guard " Cut Five. 
Fourth " First Guard, " Cut Six. 
Third " Left Parry, " First Point. 
Second " Second Guard " First Point. 
First " First Guard " Second Point. 



SECTION II 

STICK PRACTICE. 

In the practice with Sticks, the same formation is con- 
tinued as when performing the Seven Practices of Attacks 
and Defence, the squad being extended, and in two ranks ; 
they should then (with sticks and masts) go through the 
first six at a canter, and afterward both ranks, as in the 
lesson of the Double Ride, performing the movements as 



83 

they pass each other. The opposing files should also 
circle " Right," within measure, and at a walk, before they 
are allowed to play loose ; strict attention being paid that 
all movements are made from the hips upward, so as to 
keep the legs and bridle-arm in their proper position. 
The loose play, or independent practice, should first be 
attempted at a walk, then at a canter ; and, that the files 
may practice on their left as well as on their right, they 
should frequently be turned about outward or inward. 
They must also, as in the Practice on Foot, make a slight 
pause when touched by the file who receives the hit, re- 
turning to the position of " Slope swords ;" and, although 
the attack is principally to be directed at the man, yet 
occasionally it must be given toward the horse, but with 
caution, so as to avoid touching. For the horse's head, 
the " Fifth" is the best guard on the near side, and the 
" Second" and " Fourth" on the off side. 

It would be useless to endeavor to state which are the 
best movements, as that must depend entirely on the 
judgment and abilities of the parties engaged ; but as the 
loose play should not be allowed until a sufiicient com- 
petency is attained by the parties, and that they have 
been thoroughly instructed in the movements of Attack 
and Defence, they can never find themselves at a loss, if 
the science is followed up by sufficient practice, and at- 
tention to the instructions they have received. 



CHAPTER VI. 

DIRECTIONS FOR FIRING A FEU-DE-JOIE, AND DIRECTIONS 
FOR FUNERAL CEREMONY, 

SECTION I. 

TO FIRE A FEU-DE-JOIE. 

The line drawn up at " Order," (double distance,) with 
advanced arms. 

With Blank Cartridge Prime and Load } (in quick 
time :) remain quarter-faced to the right. 



84 

Ready. — Carbines to be brought smartly to the " Pri- 
ming position" and cocked. 

Present — Elevate in the air. 

Commence Firing on the Right. — The right hand 
man of the front rank commences the fire, which will 
run down the front and up the rear, as quick as possible. 
When the right-hand man of the rear rank has fired, the 
whole will glance their eyes to the right, to bring the 
Carbine to the priming position ; and when loaded they 
will remain steady, waiting for the word. 

Ready — Present. — As before directed. The same to 
be repeated the third time. 

After the third fire, the whole will glance their eyes 
to the right, to bring Carbines to the port together ; Half- 
cock Arms, Shut Pans, Advance Arms, Present Arms. 
Advance Arms, as in the Carbine Exercise. Three 
Cheers. 



SECTION II. 

DIRECTIONS FOR FUNERAL CEREMONY. 

The party appointed for the escort, according to the 
rank of the deceased, is to be drawn up two deep, with 
open ranks, facing the place where the corpse is lodged ; 
and when it is brought out, the officer commanding will 
give the following words of command: 

Present Arms, — Reverse Arms. — The right hand 
strikes the butt of the Carbine, which is turned upward, 
the guard toward the body ; it is then placed under the 
left arm, seizing the cock and hammer with the left fore- 
finger and thumb. The right hand is thrown behind 
the body, and grasps the Carbine ; the right heel, at the 
same time, is brought to its original position. 

The officers' swords are reversed under the right arm, 
the point downward, grasping the hilt with the right 
hand. 

Rear Rank, take Close Order. — The party will then 
wheel forward or backward by divisions, or sections, as 
circumstances may require, and will stand in column, 
the left in front, until the procession is ready, when the 
ranks will be open by the word of command 



85 

March. — The party moves off in slow time, followed 
by the music, playing the Dead March. 

THE CORPSE. 

PALL BEARERS OF EQUAL RANK WITH THE DECEASED. 

Chief Mourners. 

OFFICERS, TWO AND TWO, 

According to rank, the Juniors next to the Mourners, or 
the body of the deceased. 

When the first division of the funeral party arrives 
near the burial ground, the word of command " Halt" is 
given, and the officer commanding will order the ranks 
of the divisions to wheel to the right and left, having 
been previously told off for that purpose, and facing in- 
ward, forming a lane for the corpse to pass through. 

Rest upon your Arms, Reversed. — The Carbine is 
quitted by the right hand and brought upright, the muz- 
zle placed upon the toes of the left foot ; the left hand, 
open, is placed upon the butt-end of the Carbine, the 
soldier's head leaning rather forward, the right hand is 
brought up to the forehead, shading the eyes. The 
corpse, &c, having passed through the lane, the word 
" Attention" is given ; on which the soldiers raise their 
heads, and drop their right arms by their sides. 

Reverse Arms. — The ranks are then wheeled up, and 
at " Open order" move in ordinary time, and form in line 
in the same order, near to and facing the grave. The 
command will then be given : 

Rest upon your Arms, Reversed. — After the perform- 
ance of the funeral service, the following words of com- 
mand are given : 

Attention — Present Arms — By changing the hand 
on the butt, raising the carbine and seizing it with the 
left hand at the swell, turning it over with the right hand, 
and then holding it in the position of " Presented arms." 

Advance Arms. — Prime and load with blank cartridge. 

Advance Arms. — Three volleys are then fired in the 
air. After the third volley, Half-cock and Shut Pans ; 
Advance Arms ; Rear Rank take Close Order ; Return to 
Camp Quarters, or Barracks, the right in front, quick time. 

In marching back the music is not to play until the 
party is entirely clear of the burying-ground. 



86 



CHAPTER ¥11. 

LANCE PRACTICE. 
SECTION I. 

EXERCISE ON FOOT. 

In the following instructions, the several motions are 
explained in terms applicable to the mounted practice ; 
but the whole of the practice is to be taught on foot, 
before the recruit attempts to perform it on horseback. 
In the ranks, dismounted, the Lancer is to have his lance 
near the right foot, resting it on the right shoulder, the 
right hand in front of it. 

Shoulder Lance. — The right thumb to slide quickly 
in rear of the lance, which is to be lifted about half a 
foot from the ground, sloping a little backward, over the 
right shoulder. 

Carry Lance. — The lance is to rest near the man's 
foot, the right hand in a line with the shoulder. 

DRESSING 

Is done as usual, with the only exception that the 
lance must fall back against the right shoulder, the right 
hand upon it, in the same position as when the men sit 
at ease. 

MOUNTING WITH THE LANCE. 

The horse being placed straight, the soldier holds with 
his right hand the reins of the bridoon, near the bit, the 
lance at the " Garry," in the left hand. 

Prepare to Mount. — One. — As directed in the 
system of Equitation ; but the lance is to be at the bal- 
ance, grasped with the left hand. 

Two. — The man is to take the reins, and a firm part 
of the mane round the thumb, holding the point of the 
lance well up, to prevent it touching the men or horses 
near it in the ranks, 

Three, — As usual. 

Mount. — One. — As usual. 



87 

Two. — The right hand is to slide down under the 
bridle-hand, the extent of the arm, and to seize the lance. 

Three. — The right hand is to bring up the lance to 
the " Carry," as described in the third motion of " Carry- 
lance/' when the lance is to be slung on the left arm. 

Prepare to Dismount. — One. The lance is to be 
raised out of the bucket by the right hand sliding down 
to the extent of the arm. 

Two. — It is brought up as directed in the slinging of 
the lance. 

Three. — The lance is to be brought, in this motion, 
under the bridle-hand, and seized by it at its balance, the 
point kept well upward ; securing the lance reins and 
mane well in the left hand. 

Dismount. — As usual ; but the lance should never 
touch the ground until the man has quitted the left stir- 
rup, when he is also to quit the mane, and to bring the 
lance to the " Carry" on the left side. 

The lance, in all movements, is to be at the " Carry" 
or " Trail," except on marches, when it is to be slung on 
the right or left arm ; or when the men sit at ease, then 
the lance is to rest in the hollow of the left shoulder, the 
right hand upon it, extended down on the shaft. 

Carry Lance. — One. — The lance is to rest with the 
butt-end in the bucket, on the right stirrup, and to be 
kept perpendicular by the right hand, which is to be in a 
line with the shoulder, the thumb in the sling. 

The lance is " Trailed" by being carried in the right 
hand, at the balance, the hand resting at the hollow of 
the thigh, the point of the lance diagonally across the 
horse's neck. 



SECTION II. 

EXERCISE ON HORSEBACK. 

PREPARE TO PERFORM THE LANCE EXERCISE. 

This is done in the usual mode of preparing to per- 
form Sword Exercise. 

Prove Distance. — Is done from the front guard. 



FIRST DIVISION. 

Against Cavalry. 

Guard. — One. — From the carry raise the lance out 
of the bucket with the right hand, and bring it sharply 
and securely under the right arm, so that the lance may 
rest horizontally, the point to the front ; its centre bal- 
anced in the right hand, which grasps it. The thumb 
should lie outward, along the shaft of the lance ; the arm 
is at all times to be kept close on the lance, which should 
rest under the arm, pressed against the body, without stiff- 
ness. 

Front Parry and Point. — One. — From the front 
guard the lance is to be moved short and quick to the 
left, about eighteen inches, over the horse's ears, so as to 
parry off any point or cut on the front. 

Two. — The lance is to be brought short and quick to 
the right. In all parries the butt-end is to remain firm 
under the arm, to give it more force against the point, 
cut or parry of an antagonist. 

Three. — The point of the lance is thrown forward by 
the right hand, with a sharp motion, to the front, the full 
extent of the right arm, the butt resting firm under the 
arm ; the point is to be given as high as the antagonist's 
breast, although the body ought, with every point, and 
particularly with every parry, to give strength and force 
to the lance, yet the man should, at all times, remain firm 
and strong in the saddle, which will give force to his 
weapon. 

Four. — The lance is to be sharply withdrawn to the 
" Front guard." 

Left Parry and Point. — One. — The lance is 
brought smartly over the horse's head, the point to be 
directed horizontally to the man's left side ; the man is 
to turn his body a little to the left, but to remain well 
and firm in his saddle, only throwing the right shoulder 
forward. 

Two. — The " Parry, left and right," is to be made 
eighteen inches either way, as described in the 

Front Parry.' — Three. — The point of the lance is 
to be thrown smartly out to the left, as far as the right 



89 

arm will admit, the lance resting on the man's breast, 
and the right arm close upon it. 

Four. — The lance is to be quickly withdrawn to the 
" Left guard." 

Right Parry and Point. — One. — Bring the lance 
from the left guard smartly over the horse's head to the 
right side ; direct the point of the lance horizontally to 
the right. Care must here be taken that by turning 
round the lance it is not raised too high over the horse's 
head, otherwise the butt-end will strike against the 
horse's haunches, which will make him fear the lance. 

Two.— The "Parry to the Right or Left" is to be 
quickly made, as already explained. 

Three. — The point of the lance is to be thrown out to 
the right, at the height of the antagonist's breast. The 
right arm is to be so turned as to pass the lance firmly 
under it, and support the point of the lance against any 
parry or cut of the antagonist. 

Four. — The lance is to be quickly withdrawn to the 
" Right guard." 

Left Rear Parry and Point. — One. — The lance 
is to be drawn swiftly round from the right guard, over 
the horse's head, horizontally, to the left rear of the sol- 
dier ; the body of the soldier is to turn on the hip in his 
saddle, as far round to the left as a firm seat will allow. 

Two. — The " Parry left and right" to be quickly made. 

Three. — The point of the lance is to be thrown out to 
the left rear of the man, as much as the arm will permit. 

Four. — The lance is to be quickly withdrawn to the 
" Left Rear Guard." 

Right Rear Parry and Point. — One. — The Lance 
is to be brought back in a round parry, smartly over the 
horse's head from the left rear to the right rear ; though 
the man turns as much as possible on his left to the rear, 
yet he must keep a firm seat in his saddle, or his power 
of acting offensively will be considerably diminished. 

7^ 0> _The "Parry" "Right" and "Left" must be 
quickly made. 

Three. — The point to the right rear is to be given, 
the man keeping his Lance close under his arm ; he 
ought to look well back to observe the execution of his 
Lance. 
9 



90 

Four. — The Lance is to be quickly withdrawn to the 
Right Rear Guard. 

Carry Lance. — One. — The Lance is to be dropped 
with the butt-end in a perpendicular direction into the 
bucket, or the right stirrup ; the right hand as before 
directed. 



SECOND DIVISION. 

Against Infantry. 

Guard. — One. — From the Carry to the Front Guard. 
See First Division. 

Right Parry and Point. — One.— The Lance is 
to be brought sharply down to the right, in an oblique 
direction, so as to act against a man dismounted. 

Two.— The "Parry" " Right" and "Left", against 
Infantry, is to be quickly made, as already observed. 

Three. — The point is to be given firm in an oblique 
direction downward, the body a little sunk with, and 
during the point. 

Four. — The Lance is quickly withdrawn to the Right 
Guard against Infantry. 

Left Parry and Point. — One. — The Lance is to be 
brought from the "Right Guard," against Infantry, with 
a sharp motion over the horse's head, to the left, in an 
oblique direction downward, as before explained to the 
right. 

Ttvo. — The parries left and right to be made short and 
quick. 

Three. — The point to be given left, against Infantry. 

Four. — The Lance is to be quickly withdrawn to the 
Left Guard, against Infantry. 

Reverse Lance and Point. — One. — The Lance is 
to be carried over the horse's head, and raised twelve 
inches, then the point turned down, with quick motion 
of the wrist, and bringing thus the point to the rear ; the 
Lance under the right arm ; the butt to the front ; the 
right hand, without quitting the Lance, is to be shifted 
while the Lance is turned round. 

Two. — The butt of the Lance is to be carried forward, 
keeping it close to the shoulder. 



91 

Three. — The point is to be darted to the rear, down- 
ward, in an oblique direction, against Infantry ; the eyes 
should at all times, particularly to the rear, accompany 
the points. 

Port Lance and Rear Point. — One. — The Lance 
is to be lowered a little from under the arm, and being 
again turned over with the butt to the rear, the point is 
to be thrown from the right, over the horse's head, to 
the left rear of the man, into the left arm which supports 
the Lance, the back of the right hand upward. 

Two. — The right hand slides the full extent of the 
arm, toward the butt. 

Three. — The point to be darted to the rear, as directed 
in the motion, " Reverse Lance." 

Four. — The point to be withdrawn smartly to the 
u Port Lance." 

Carry Lance. — One. — The Lance is to be brought 
quickly over the horse's head to the " Carry*" 



THIRD DIVISION. 

Against Cavalry. 

Guard. — One. — As before. 

Round Parry and Front Point. — One. The 
Lance is to be brought round smartly, three times back 
and forward over the horse's head, so that the point of 
the Lance forms a half circle, to keep off an enemy's 
attack. 

Two. — The front point is to be given as before di- 
rected. 

Three. The Lance is to be withdrawn to the " Front 
Guard." 

Round Parry, Port Lance, and Rear Point. — 
One. — The "Round Parry," as before directed. The 
Lance is then to rest on the left arm at the Port, and 
to be grasped firmly in the centre with the back of the 
right hand upward, the point to the rear. 

Two. — The hand slides up toward the butt-end of the 
Lance, to the full extent of the arm, keeping the point of 
the Lance horizontally directed to the rear ; the right 
shoulder to be well brought up. 



92 

Three. — The point is to be given to the rear, as be- 
fore directed, only that this point is, against Cavalry, 
directed at the horse's head of the pursuing antagonist. 

Four. — The Lance is to be withdrawn to the Port. 

Round Parry, Reverse Lance, and Rear Point. 
— One. — From the Port the Lance is to be again thrown 
quickly back and forward over the horse's head, thre e 
times round, forming a half circle. 

Tivo. — After the third round, the Lance is to be 
brought as before described in the Second Division, in 
the " Reverse Lance." 

Three. — The Rear Point is given sharply against 
Cavalry, as before stated. 

Four. — The Lance is to be quickly withdrawn to the 
Reverse. 

St. George. — One. — From the "Reverse Lance," 
when the butt is to the front, the Lance is to be taken 
between the fore and middle finger of the right hand ; 
the butt of the Lance then to be moved twice, quickly 
back and forward, over the horse's head ; by this motion 
the right hand gains the power to raise the Lance over 
the head of the man, then to spin it round in a full circle, 
twice or thrice, the hand to grasp it, the point to the rear ; 
the arm to be extended upward, holding the Lance hori- 
zontally, the palm of the hand inward. 

Guard, and Carry Lance. — One. — The Lance is 
to be turned in the fingers of the right hand, and, after 
a moment's pause, brought sharply under the right arm 
to the Front Guard. 

Two. — The Lance is to be brought to the Carry, as 
before directed. 



FIRST DIVISION. 




Against Cavalry. 




Words of Command. 


Motions. 


1st. Guard, 


1. 


2(3. Front Parry and Point, 


4. 


3d. Left Parry and Point, 


4. 


4th. Right Parry and Point, 


4. 


5th. Left Rear Parry and Point, 


4. 


6th. Right Rear Parry and Point, 


4. 


7th. Carry Lance, ... 


4. 



93 

SECOND DIVISION. 

Against Infantry. 



1st. Guard. - ' - - - 


1. 


2d. Right Parry and Point. 


4. 


3d. Left Parry and Point, 


4. 


4th. Reverse Lance and Rear Point. 


4 


5th. Port Lance and Rear Point, 


4. 


6th. Cam'- Lance, - 


4. 


THIRD DIVISION. 




Against Cavalry. 




1st. Guard, --.--. 


1. 


2d. Round Parry and Front, give Point, 


3. 


3d. Round Parry and Port Lance, and Rear 




Point, - 


4. 


4th. Round Parry, Reverse Lance, and Rear 




Point, -- 


4. 


5th. St. George, 


1. 


6th. Guard, and Carry Lance. 


2. 



FOR DRAWING PISTOL 

Right Arm Sling Lance. — From the Carry let the 
thumb, which is in the sling, go forward into the sling ; 
the fingers disengaging from the lance and following 
the thumb through the sling, the lance will fall back 
behind the right shoulder : the right hand is to rest on 
the thigh near the hip ; the right arm to be held in a 
natural position, and not forced either way. 

Draw Pistol — The lance being slung, the Pistol may 
be drawn and the various firings gone through ; great 
care and patience are necessary for this practice. 

Return Pistol. — As usual. 

Carry Lance. — The lance to be brought forward by 
a motion of the right elbow, at which time the right 
hand reversed is to lay hold of the lance and to slide 
upward, so as to disengage the right arm out of the sling, 
and to remain at the carry. 
9* 



94 

FOR DRAWING SWORD. 

Left Arm Sling Lance. — One. — The right arm is 
to slide down on the lance to the full extent of the arm. 

Two. — The right hand is to give a firm jerk, and to 
throw the lance perpendicularly upward, so that the 
hand be within half a yard of the butt end of the 
lance. 

Three. — The right hand is to bring the lance over 
the bridle hand, and to let the lance slide through the 
hand downward to a vertical position, so that the butt 
end enters the bucket on the left stirrup. 

Four. — Both hands are to be placed near each other, 
and the right hand to lay quickly hold of the reins ; the 
left hand is to take the lance, so that the thumb be in 
the sling which it enters, the fingers following into the 
sling, and thus throwing the lance in rear of the left 
shoulder. 

Five. — The left hand is to resume the reins, the right 
hand to be placed on the right thigh. 

Draw Swords. — After the lance is slung on the left 
arm the Sword may be used. 

Return Swords. — As usual. 

Carry Lance. — One. — The left arm is to give a 
firm jerk to throw it forward ; at the same time the hand 
reversed is to lay hold of the lance, then to slide upward 
and to disengage the left arm out of the sling; the reins 
to be in the right hand. 

Two. — Both hands are to be brought near each other, 
the left taking the reins, leaving the lance supported by 
the thumb of the left hand till the right has quitted the 
reins, and then quickly slides down on the lance under 
the bridle to the full extent of the arm. 

Three. — The right hand is to bring the lance out of 
the bucket with a jerk, throwing up the lance in order 
to bring it clear over the saddle to the right side ; the 
lance is then to slide through the right hand downward 
into the bucket of the right stirrup, the right hand in a 
line with the shoulder. 

Second Point. — One. — From the guard throw the 
lance full half a yard or more forward in the right hand 
without advancing the hand from the guard. 



95 

T\vo. — Give the point as before, and withdraw the 
lance quickly to its proper balance and guard. 

Withdraw Lance. — Supposing the antagonist closed 
in upon the lancer, by learning to withdraw quickly his 
lance about half a yard or more, and keeping the lance 
firm under his arm, he will prevent the antagonist from 
getting in under his lance ; otherwise it would prove 
fatal to the lancer. 

POSITION OF THE LANCE FOR ATTACK IN LINE. 

On the advance to attack in line, both ranks have their 
lances carried till the word " charge," when the front 
rank brings down the lance to the front guard, ready to 
meet the object of attack, and the rear rank continues 
with the lance at the carry, but loosen it from the bucket. 
At the " halt" the lance is to be brought to the carry. 
Those men of the front rank who are immediately be- 
hind the squadron and troop leaders, must raise the 
points of their lances when at the " front guard," suffi- 
ciently to prevent accident. 

ATTACK AND DEFENCE. 

To enable the soldier to use his lance to best advan- 
tage, in the various ways he may have occasion to defend 
himself against his antagonist's attack, with the lance or 
sword, it will be most useful to both men and horses to 
form them upon a circle, and let the men attack and de- 
fend themselves as they feel they have power over their 
weapons and command over their horses. This manner 
of attack and defence may be tried both upon the right 
and left circle with any weapon. Those who are per- 
fect masters of their horses will have a decided advantage 
over those less so ; yet, with so long a weapon as the 
lance, it requires the horse to be particularly well-broken, 
and the man to be perfect in the management of his horse 
and weapons. The lancer at all times should try to keep 
his antagonist as much as possible in his front, or on his 
right, and at a distance, as the great advantage of the 
superior length of the weapon is lost as soon as the an- 
tagonist is able to close on him. 

This exercise should at first be tried with blunt lances, 
and sticks with basket handles. 



96 



PART THE SECOND. 

SMALL SWORD EXERCISE OR FENCING. 



CH AFT1III !■ 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 



SECTION I. 

Foils, Masks, Guards of Carte and Tierce, $*c. 

FOILS, MASKS, &c. 

The foils should be proportioned to the size of those 
who use them. Thirty-one inches is the medium for 
men. It is advisable to use a glove on the hand, padded 
on the back and the outside of the fingers ; the masks 
must have wire fronts stout enough to resist an acci- 
dental thrust at the face. An easy dress should be worn, 
and it is usual, in academies, to have a spot or heart on 
the left side of the breast of the waistcoat. 

HOW TO HOLD THE FOIL. 

The hilt must be flat in your hand, so that the two 
edges are nearly horizontal when you throw yourself 
upon guard. Your thumb should be stretched along the 
upper flat part of the hilt within half an inch of the shell, 
and the pommel should rest under your wrist. 

COMMON GUARDS OF CARTE AND TIERCE. 

Stand in the first position ; that is, your right foot for- 
ward with the heel advanced ; then throw yourself upon 
the common guard or carte by advancing your right foot 
about half a yard from the left. The two heels should 
be in the same line. Turn your wrist so that the nails 
may appear upward. Let your hand be on a line with 
the lower part of your breast, the arm not stretched, but 
a little bent and the elbow inclined a little to the outside. 



97 

The point of your foil should be about fifteen degrees 
elevated, and nearly fixed on a line with the upper part 
of your adversary's breast. The left arm (which is 
necessary to balance the body in these movements,) must 
be raised in a semi-circular manner on a line with the 
forehead, the hand kept open in an easy manner, the 
thumb and first finger nearly meeting ; your body should 
be sideways, and your head turned toward the right so 
as to keep sight of your point. Let the balance of your 
body rest upon the left leg ; keep the left knee bent and 
flexible, so that you may incline a little backward ; the 
right knee should also be rather bent and perpendicular to 
the point where your right foot rests. The position of the 
guard in tierce is similar to that of carte, only the hand 
must be a little reversed so that the nails may be half 
turned downward. The arm should be a little stretched 
outward, in order to secure or cover the outside, and the 
point should be as in carte. 

ENGAGING AND DISENGAGING. 

Engaging in carte, or in tierce, is opposing your adver- 
sary's blade, either inside or outside, when you first join 
or cross blades on guard. Disengaging is performed by 
dexterously shifting the point of your foil from one side 
of your adversary's blade to the other ; that is from carte 
to tierce or vice- versa. 

THE ADVANCE AND RETREAT. 

In order to advance, move the right foot easily forward 
to the distance of more than a foot, and let the left foot 
immediately follow at the same distance ; these two move- 
ments must be performed in the same moment. Keep 
your body firm and steady, while you repeat this five or 
six times ; and let there be a short pause between every 
advance. After making five or six advances, observe if 
the distance and position of your guard be exactly the 
same as your distance and position were when you com- 
menced. In the retreat, your left foot makes the first 
movement backward, and your right follows at the same 
moment. 

THE SIMPLE PARADE OF CARTE AND TIERCE. 

These are distinguished from all the others, on account 



98 

of their securing the breast, as upper parades. To per- 
form that of Carte, place yourself on the common guard, 
and throw your hand toward the left, or inward, about 
six inches from guard, making a gradual turn upward 
with the wrist, in order to throw off your adversary's 
blade with the greater ease, at the same time draw your 
hand a little toward your body, that the opposition may 
be more powerful ; the Simple Parade of Tierce is also 
performed from the common guard, by throwing and 
stretching your arm obliquely downward to the right, 
or outwardly, the nails being reversed by the gradual 
turn of the wrist, in forming the parade. It parries the 
simple thrust of Carte over the arm and second. The 
distance of the hand from the common guard should be 
six inches. The point of your foil, your body and legs, 
should not deviate from the line of direction, in perform- 
ing either of these parades. 



SECTION II. 

PARADES OF OCTAVE, SIMPLE PARADE, ETC. 
The Parades of Octave and Semi-circle. 

To perform the octave parallel, raise the hand as high 
as your chin, the nails must not be twined up so much 
as in semi-circle ; your arm should be well stretched, 
and thrown outward, the distance of six inches, the wrist 
should be bent as much as possible, in order that the 
point may fall on a line with your adversary's flank, 
making nearly the same angle from guard point as semi- 
circle. Semi-circle parade is useful against thrusts of 
low carte, seconde, and the disengage and thrust of carte 
over the arms. Let your body be steadily inclined upon 
the left side ; drop your point, with the nails upward, so 
as to form an angle of nearly 45 degrees with the guard 
point, at the same time stretch your arm well out, raise 
the hand as high as your mouth, and throw your arm 
inward the distance of six inches from the line of direc- 
tion in your common guard, that your point may appear 
to the eye in looking to your arm. 



99 



THE SIMPLE PARADES OF SECONDE AND PRIME. 

These two parades are not used so frequently as the 
preceding four. Seconde is very powerful against the 
simple thrusts of low Carte and Seconde. To perform 
it from Carte to Tierce, the nails and wrist should be 
turned downward, the point to be dropped, and the hand 
opposed outward, as in the parade of octave. The points 
tract from guard is also nearly the same with the parade 
in octave, and the inclination of the blade should form 
the angle of 45 degrees. 

Prime is performed with the nails turned downward, 
the hand raised higher than the mouth, and opposed in- 
ward in the same manner as semi-circle. The arm 
should be drawn well in toward the body, and the wrist 
bent downward, that the point may fall more than in 
other low parade. 



SECTION III. 

THE EXTENSION LOUNGE, THRUSTS OF CARTE, 
CARTE OVER THE ARM, AND TIERCE. 

Thrusts are for the most part executed with the lounge, 
except thrusts of the wrists and thrusts of the extension. 
They may be performed either after disengaging the 
point or not. To perform the straight thrust of carte, 
inside, your point must be directed to your adversary's 
breast, the arm well raised, and opposed, inside the nails, 
upward, your body projecting forward, and an exten- 
sion performed of the right arm and left leg ; then push 
from the thrust, in carte, by lounging out to a distance 
proportionate with your height. Your left arm should 
be stretched down by the flank, at the distance of two or 
three inches, and always raised as you recover upon 
guard, by way of grace, and balanced to your movements. 
Your body should incline a little forward, the head be 
raised upright, looking outward over the shoulders, so as 
to have a full view of the point. As you approach your 
adversary's breast, make a gradual resistance against his 
foil, inward, by way of covor to your lounge ; keep the 
right knee bent, and in a perpendicular position, with 



100 

your heel, the left knee and ham stretched, with the foot 
firmly fixed to the ground. 

To recover yourself from the requisite ease, lean with 
some degree of force on the heels of both feet ; the greatest 
force is first upon the right, then it falls upon the left ; by 
bending the left knee at the same time, and inclining the 
body backward, you come to guard. The thrust of carte, 
over the arm, is performed in the same manner as carte 
inside, by disengaging to tierce, with this difference, that 
the head is raised upright on the inside, and the hand 
well opposed, outward, in order to be well covered. The 
thrust of tierce differs only from carte, over the arm, by 
reversing the wrist, the hand being well raised and op- 
posed outward. 






SECTION IV. 

LOW CARTE.— VARIATIONS IN PRACTICE. 
Low Carte, Octave, JSeconde and Prime Thrusts. 

Low carte, sometimes called semi-circle thrust, is de- 
livered after forming the parade of semi-circle, in the same 
manner as simple carte thrust, only the hand and point 
must be fixed lower. It is an excellent thrust, if your 
adversary have frequent recourse to his high parades. 

Octave thrust is delivered after the parade of octave on 
the flank or belly, the arm being well opposed outward. 
If you parry your adversary's thrust by octave, your re- 
turn will naturally be the thrust of octave ; which may, 
at the same time, touch him with the extension only, 
without the lounge. The thrust in seconde is delivered 
after the parade of the tierce ; or when engaged by tierce, 
by dropping your point under your adversary's wrist, with 
the nails downward ; lounge and deliver the thrust on 
the flank. Prime is the natural thrust in return, after 
having parried your adversary's force, when advanced 
considerably within his measure, and pressing vigorously 
upon you. It is only an extension of the arm from the 
opposition of the parade to your adversary's body, the 
nails being kept downward. The arm should be well 
raised, and opposed inward. 



101 

VARIATIONS AND LESSONS ON ENGAGING AND DIS- 
ENGAGING, ADVANCING AND RETREATING, SIMPLE 
PARADES, AND THRUSTS OF CARTE AND TIERCE. 

Suppose you are engaged ill carte with an adversary, 
he retreats, you advance, well covered in carte ; he re- 
treats again, you advance with a disengagement to tierce, 
and so forth, alternately. Take care that you are pro- 
perly covered on each engagement ; his retreat and your 
advance should be comprehended in the same moment of 
time ; in the same manner you may retreat while he ad- 
vances. 

On the engagement of carte, your adversary delivers a 
thrust in carte ; oppose it by forming your parade in 
carte, then return the straight thrust thereof. He again 
thrusts straight in the same manner ; also throw it off by 
forming your parade in carte; deliver in return the thrust 
of carte, over the arm, by disengaging to tierce. On the 
engagement in tierce he disengages, and thrusts carte 
inside ; throw it off by your parade in carte, disengage 
and thrust carte over the arm ; he parries and returns in 
tierce, which you parry by a parade in tierce, and longe 
home with a straight thrust in tierce. 



SECTION V. 

LESSONS AND VARIATIONS. 

LESSONS AND VARIATIONS, LOW CARTE AND 
OCTAVE. 

On the engagement of carte, drop your point and 
deliver the thrust of low carte. On the same engage- 
ment, your adversary thrusts straight home, throw it off 
by parade in carte, then deliver a return of the thrust in 
low carte. On the same engagement disengage to tierce, 
and thrust carte over the arm, he opposes it with his 
parade and returns a disengaged thrust in carte, which 
throw off with the parade of carte, then with vivacity 
drop your point and deliver a thrust in low carte. On the 
same engagement, disengage to tierce and thrust carte 
over the arm ; he opposes it with his parade and returns 
10 



102 

a disengaged thrust in carte ; which throw off with the 
parade of carte; then, with vivacity, drop your point and 
deliver a thrust in low carte. On the engagement of 
tierce, your adversary, by disengaging, attempts to de- 
liver a thrust in low carte, throw it off by performing the 
parade of octave, then make a quick return of the thrust 
in octave. 

On the engagement of carte ; he thrusts low carte, 
parry it by octave; instantly form your extension ; fix 
your point well to his body, and you may almost make 
sure of touching him. On the engagement of carte, he 
disengages to tierce and thrusts ; throw it off by your 
parade of tierce ; then reverse your nails upward, and 
return a thrust in octave. On the same engagement he 
thrusts low carte ; oppose it by forming your parades in 
semi-circle ; then deliver a thrust in octave, by disen- 
gaging over his arm, commonly called a counter disen- 
gagement. 

LESSON AND VARIATIONS IN PRIME AND SECONDE. 

On the engagement of tierce your adversary advances 
within his measure, and delivers a thrust in tierce, or 
carte, over the arm ; oppose his blade by the parade of 
prime and return a thrust in prime. 

On the same engagement, he advances, disengages and 
forcibly thrusts carte ; drop your point and parry it with 
prime ; then disengage over his arm and return a thrust 
in seconde. 

On the engagement of carte, he disengages and thrusts 
carte over the arm ; parry it with simple tierce and re- 
turn a thrust in tierce ; he advances, as you recover, 
within his measure, forcing upon your blade ; form your 
parade in prime and deliver a quick return of the thrust 
thereof. On the same engagement, he again disengages 
and thrusts carte over the arm, which parry with tierce 
and return the thrust thereof; he forces a thrust, without 
advancing; parry it with prime, then disengage over the 
arm and return your thrust in seconde. 



103 

SECTION VI. 

THE SALUTE, ETC. 

Place yourself on guard, engage your adversary's blade 
on the outside, by way of compliment ; desire him to 
thrust first at you ; then drop your point by reversing the 
nails downward with a circular motion ; draw your 
right foot close behind the left, stretching both hams ; 
raise your right arm, and with your left hand take off 
your hat gracefully ; then make a circular motion with 
your wrist, with the nails upward, while you advance 
your right foot forward, forming your proper extension. 
Your adversary makes the same motions, keeping equal 
time with yours ; but instead of forming the extension, 
he makes a full longe, as if going to thrust carte inside, 
in order to take his measure, presenting his point at a 
little distance from your body while you remain un- 
covered on the extension. 

When your adversary recovers his position, after 
having taken his measure, you also recover, by drawing 
the right foot or heel of the left *, the right hand well 
stretched and raised, the nails upward, and the point 
dropped, the left hand raised in a semi-circular form, as 
if on guard, your hat held therein with case and grace- 
fulness, the head upright, and the hams stretched. In 
this attitude salute first in carte, by forming that parade; 
then salute in tierce, by forming the parade of tierce ; 
lastly, make a circular motion with the wrist, by drop- 
ping your point in tierce, at that moment putting on your 
hat, and throwing yourself upon the guard of carte. 

When it is your turn to push, the salute only differs in 
one particular from the above, that is, instead of forming 
the extension, and uncovering the body, you make a full 
longe from the first position, by placing the right foot or 
heel close to the heel of the left, and conclude with the 
other movements. 

All these motions should be performed with ease, grace, 
and without precipitation. After performing the salute, 
and being engaged in carte, your adversary, agreeably 
to the compliment offered, pushes at your breast by dis- 
engaging nimbly to tierce, and thrusting carte over the 



104 

arm. Observe that the wrist is never reversed when he 
disengages ; oppose it by forming the parade of tierce ; 
then drop the point, by way of accustoming yourself to 
make the return in seconde, which may be termed the 
grace on the parade of tierce. Remain on this grace till 
your adversary recovers to guard ; then join his blade in 
tierce ; he disengages, by thrusting carte inside ; throw 
it off by forming the parade of carte. The grace or 
ornament to be used after forming this parade, while 
your adversary is upon the longe, is by allowing the foil 
to remain flexible in your hand, with the point down- 
ward, keeping your hand in the same direction as if 
covered upon the parade. 

Your adversary, after pushing tierce and carte, alter- 
nately, commences the salute ; and while he is on the 
extension, you take the measure by longing in carte. 
Having joined blades in carte, disengage, and thrust carte 
over the arm. Again he joins your blade in tierce, dis- 
engage nimbly, and thrust carte inside. 

He opposes in carte ; then let the blade and point fly 
loosely over the hand, having hold of your foil between 
the thumb and two first fingers, by which you will have 
a view of your adversary through the angle made thereby. 
This is the grace upon the longe inside. 



CHAPTER XX. 

MORE MINUTE INSTRUCTIONS. 
SECTION I. 

COUNTER PARADE AND DISENGAGEMENTS. 
The Counter or Round Parade in Carte and Tierce. 

The counter parade, in carte, is esteemed one of the 
most essential, as it baffles a variety of thrusts, throws 
off the disengagements over the arm, &c. In order to 
perform it, when your adversary disengages, follow his 
blade closely, with a small circle, entirely from the mo- 



105 

tion of the wrist, by which you join his blade always in 
carte. If he make a thrust with the disengagement, op- 
pose it by gradually covering yourself with the parade 
of carte, after having followed his blade round. 

The counter, or round parade, in tierce, is performed 
in a similar manner to the counter parade of carte, only 
that the course of the point is reversed. For example, 
your adversary disengages to carte, with a view to thrust 
carte inside ; follow his blade closely, with a small circle 
made by the motion of the wrist reversed in tierce, 
stretching your arm, and giving his blade a smart and 
abrupt throw-off, as you overtake or meet it in tierce. 

The course of the point in forming the counter in 
carte is inward, from left to right, and in the counter pa- 
rade of tierce the contrary. 

COUNTER DISENGAGEMENTS IN OCTAVE AND SEMI- 
CIRCLE. 

The counter disengagements in octave may be per- 
formed after your adversary has thrust in seeonde, and 
you have parried by semi-circle ; as he recovers, counter 
disengage and thrust in octave. 

To give a further exemplification of the counter dis- 
engagement in octave, it is also performed by the first 
making a feint, as if you intended to thrust octave ; he 
naturally opposes it by forming his parade in octave ; 
then nimbly disengage over his arm to carte inside, and 
deliver either that thrust, or the thrust of low carte. 

The counter disengagement in semi-circle is performed 
on the engagement of carte, when your adversary accus- 
toms himself to take the parade of semi-circle, by first 
making a feint as if you njeant to thrust low carte, which 
he attempts to parry with semi-circle, then nimbly dis- 
engaging over his arm and delivering your thrust in 
octave. 

THE COUNTER DISENGAGEMENTS IN PRIME AND 
SECONDE. 

The counter disengagement in prime is seldom used 
in attacks ; but being so nearly related to prime parade 
and thrust, we shall here describe it. It is performed 
from the engagement of tierce ; by forcing on your ad- 



106 

versary's blade if he take himself to the parade of prime, 
then nimbly disengaging over his arm and delivering 
your thrust in seconde. 

The counter disengagement of seconde may be more 
frequently used ; it is performed from the disengagement 
of carte by dropping your point or making a feint, as if 
you intended to thrust prime ; your adversary opposes it 
by performing the parade of seconde ; then disengage 
over his arm and deliver your thrust by longing in 
prime. 



SECTION II. 

LESSONS AND VARIATIONS ON THE COUNTER PA- 
RADES IN CARTE AND TIERCE AND THE COUNTER 
DISENGAGEMENTS IN OCTAVE, &c. 

On the engagement of carte, and thrust carte over the 
arm your adversary opposes, by forming the counter pa- 
rade of carte. Upon recovering, he in return disengages 
and thrusts carte over the arm, opposes it by counter 
parade in carte, &c. ; disengaging and parrying alter- 
nately, always making complete longes with the thrusts, 
and moving well to guard while forming the counter 
parades. Make your movements very slow and exact 
in the beginning, and gradually quicken them- Exer- 
cise on the engagement of tierce in the same manner ; 
first by disengaging and thrusting carte inside, which 
he opposes by forming the counter parade in tierce ; in 
return he disengages and thrusts carte inside, which parry 
with the counter parade in tierce, <fcc. thrusting and 
parrying as above until you quicken your movements 
with all possible exactness. 

On the engagement of tierce, if your adversary thrust 
octave in low carte, you may parry it with octave, then 
counter disengage, and deliver a thrust in low carte. 

On the same engagement he counter disengages and 
thrusts low carte, which oppose by your counter parade 
in octave, and return the thrust thereof. On the same 
engagement he again counter disengages and thrusts 
low carte, which you may baffle by first forming the pa- 
rade of octave, then forming the parade of semi-circle 



107 

quickly after the other, and as he recovers counter dis- 
engage and thrust octave. 

On the engagement of tierce advance within measure, 
forcing upon your adversary's blade ; he betakes himself 
to the simple parade of prime, counter disengage and 
thrust seconde. On the same engagement he advances, 
forces and counter disengages as above ; but baffle his 
thrust in seconde by the counter parade in prime, and 
return the thrust thereof. On the same engagement he 
counter disengages, following his blade by the counter 
parade in prime. If he attempt to double or disengage, 
again stop him by forming your simple parade of se- 
conde. 

On the engagement of carte, counter disengage when 
your adversary drops in seconde, and thrust in prime. 

On the same engagement he counter disengages when 
you drop to seconde ; oppose it by your parade of seconde, 
then return a straight thrust in seconde. 

Or if, on the same engagement, he makes a straight 
thrust in seconde, you may parry it with semi-circle and 
return low carte thrust. On the same engagement he 
counter disengages, answer his movements by forming 
the simple parades of seconde and prime ; then counter 
disengage as he recovers, and deliver a thrust in seconde. 



SECTION III. 

Feints, Cuts, Thrusts, <§*c. 
FEINTS. 

Feints are used to oblige your adversary to give you 
opening. The simple feint, one, two, is performed by 
two separate disengagements, either on the engagement 
of carte or tierce, when your adversary throws his simple 
parades. 

If engaged in carte, disengage closely to tierce, then 
quickly disengage back to carte and deliver the thrust 
thereof. On the engagement of tierce, disengage first to 
carte, then disengage back to tierce, delivering the thrust 
of carte over the arm. 

Feint Seconde, carte over the arm is performed, when 



108 

engaged in tierce, by dropping your point and reversing 
the nails as if you meant to thrust seconde ; then quickly 
turn them upward and deliver the thrust of carte over 
the arm. On the same engagement you may mark feint 
seconde, and thrust carte inside if there be an opening. 
Feints, one, two, three, are performed by three separate 
disengagements, either from the engagement of carte or 
tierce. 

On the engagement of carte, mark feint one, two, as 
above. If your adversary forms his simple parade of 
carte, nimbly mark your third disengagement by thrust- 
ing carte over the arm. On the engagement of tierce, 
disengage three times, and deliver your thrust in carte 
inside. 

CUT OVER THE POINT. 

This is performed when you perceive your adversary 
hold his hand low, and his point raised upon guard. 

To perform it from carte to tierce, raise your point 
quickly with the upward motion of your wrist fairly over 
your adversary's point, without moving your arm from 
the line of direction, at the same time forming your ex- 
tension, and deliver your thrust of carte over the arm. 

In the same manner you may execute cuts over the 
point from the engagement of tierce when your adver- 
sary holds his point high. 

THRUST OF THE WRIST. 

This is performed when you perceive your adversary 
slow in making a return, after you have longed with a 
thrust ; as on the engagement of carte, suppose you thrust 
carte over the arm, which your adversary naturally par- 
ries, with simple tierce, lean with some degree of force 
upon his blade, and as you recover to guard, deliver him 
a thrust with the wrist in seconde. 

RETURN ON THE EXTENSION. 

This is performed after your adversary makes a full 
longe with a thrust which you may parry so powerfully 
as to throw his arm out of the line of direction, then with 
all possible quickness extend your arm and deliver him 
a straight thrust in return, before he has time to recover, 



109 

if the extension of the arm be not within reach from 
your complete extension of the leg and arm. 



SECTION IV. 

COMPOUND MOTIONS. 

(All made at the Same Time.) 

FUGE. 

Parry any upper thrust your adversary may make 
with simple carte parade, lowering the hand the whole 
extent of the arm, keeping the foil in a diagonal position, 
rather to the left of the body ; throw forward the right 
foot about 18 inches, and seize the back of his wrist in- 
stantaneously with your left hand. 

SUBTERFUGE. 

This is performed when your adversary makes an 
upper thrust. The instant he commences his thrust, 
extend the left leg directly to the rear, and dropping the 
body forward, and low as possible, coming to the posi- 
tion of a full longe, extending at the same time, quickly, 
your right arm ; nails up ; direct the point against his 
side or arm-pit ; his foil parries above your head. Re- 
cover the guard by bringing up the left foot. This is 
differently taken by dropping the body to a low posture, 
bending both knees, the planes of the legs at a right-angle 
with each other ; head and right shoulder elevated ; the 
fingers of the left hand resting on the ground in front of 
the left toes ; the right arm extended ; nails reversed. 

VOLT AND DEMI- VOLT. 

In order to perform this, the carte engagement must 
be preserved. Previously to performing this motion, 
balance the weight of the body equally on both legs, 
bring the right elbow well back to give force to the thrust. 
As your adversary makes his longe, contrive to bring 
your foil to the carte engagement ; remove your body 
entirely out of the plane of the line of direction, by carry- 
ing the left foot round, bringing the heels on a line which 



110 

shall be perpendicular to the line of direction ; weight of 
the body on the left leg; knee little bent; right leg 
straight ; left hand resting on the left hip ; direct your 
point at your adversary's breast. 

Demi- Volt, — The same, except the left foot is only 
carried one half the distance. 

APPELS, BEATS ON THE BLADE, AND GLIZADES. 

Appels, Beats, and Glizades, tend to plant you firm 
upon your guard, to embarrass your adversary, and cause 
him to give you openings ; they may be performed pre- 
viously to simple thrust, feints, or counter disengage- 
ments, &c. An appel, or beat with the foot, is performed 
either on the engagement of carte or tierce, by sud- 
denly raising and letting fall the right foot, with a beat 
on the same spot, taking care to balance the body, and 
keep a good position on guard. 

The beat on the blade, is abruptly touching your ad- 
versary's blade, so as to startle him, and get openings 
to thrust. If he resists. the beat, instantaneously disengage 
and thrust home. If he use a simple parade, mark feint, 
one, two ; or if he use a counter-parade, counter-dis- 
engage, or double. 

Glizades are slightly gliding your blade along your 
adversary's, at the same time forming the extension of 
the arm, or the complete extension, managing and re- 
straining, your body so as to be aware of his thrust, and 
to make sure of your own. If you be engaged in 
carte, out of measure, a quick advance with a glizade 
must infallibly give you some openings, either to mark 
feints or otherwise. 

THE TIME THRUST. 

This thrust is performed when your adversary is dila- 
tory. On attempting to deliver this thrust, cover your- 
self well by forming a gradual and strong opposition to 
your adversary's blade ; you can be in no danger of ex- 
posing yourself to an interchanged thrust, that is, a thrust 
at the same moment. 






Ill 
SECTION V. 

LESSONS AND VARIATIONS TO FEINTS, APPELS, &c. 

On the engagement of carte, mark feint one, two, and 
thrust carte inside. On the engagement of tierce, feint 
one, two, and thrust carte over the arm. On the engage- 
ment of carte, mark a feint over the arm, and thrust low 
carte. On the same engagement, mark feint over the 
arm, reverse the wrist, and thrust seconde. 

On the engagement of tierce, mark feint seconde, 
reverse the wrist, and thrust carte over the arm. On 
the same engagement, mark feint seconde, and thrust 
carte inside. On the engagement of carte, in attempting 
the feints one, two, if he baffles it by his counter-parade 
in carte, counter-disengage, and deliver the thrust of 
carte over the arm. 

On the engagement of carte, suppose your adversary 
hold his guard low and his point high, make a cut over 
the point, forming your extension, and thrust carte over 
the arm. On the engagement of carte, cut over the point ; 
if he use a simple parade, disengage, and thrust carte 
inside. On the engagement of tierce, if your adversary 
hold his hand low, and point high, make a cut over the 
point, and thrust carte inside. On the same engage- 
ment, cut over the point twice, then disengage, and 
thrust carte inside. On the same engagement, cut over 
the point, then mark feints one, two, and thrust carte 
inside. 

On the engagement of carte, disengage to tierce, and 
thrust carte over the arm, if your adversary form his 
simple parade in tierce, and be slow in making a return, 
deliver him a thrust with the wrist in seconde as you 
recover. On the engagement of tierce, disengage, and 
thrust carte inside, or low carte ; if he parry it with 
octave, diseiTgage over his arm as you recover, and de- 
liver him a thrust in low carte. On the engagement of 
carte, disengage, and thrust seconde ; if he parry it 
with seconde, counter-disengage as you recover, and 
thrust prime. On the engagement of tierce, force upon 
his blade, disengage, and thrust low carte, he parrying 



112 

it with prime ; and if slow in making a return, deliver 
the thrust in seconde with the wrist as you recover. 

On the engagement of carte give him some opening ; 
if he mark the feints one, two and thrust, form your 
counter parade in carte, then deliver him a quick return 
with the wrist in low carte, by forming the complete ex- 
tension. On the engagement of tierce in like manner 
give him some openings ; if he marks feints one, two and 
thrust, form your counter parade in time ; and on the 
extension, deliver him a thrust in seconde. On the en- 
gagement of carte, if he execute low feints and thrusts, 
use the circle parade, and return a straight thrust on the 
extension before he recovers. 

On the engagement of carte, make an appel, or beat 
with the right foot, at the same time beating abruptly on 
your adversary's blade, which will give you an opening 
to thrust carte straight home. On the engagement of 
tierce make an appel, beat his blade, then disengage and 
thrust tierce or carte over the arm. On the same en- 
gagement make an appel, beat his blade, then disengage 
and deliver a thrust in carte inside. On the engagement 
of tierce make your appel, disengage to carte by beating 
his blade and thrust carte inside. 

On the engagement of tierce, perform a glizade along 
his blade, with the extension ; if he do not cover himself 
deliver a straight thrust in carte over the arm. On the 
engagement of carte make a glizade, drop your point, 
and deliver a thrust in low carte. On the engagement 
of tierce perform a glizade, drop your point under his 
wrist and deliver a thrust in octave. On the engage- 
ment of tierce, he disengages to carte, then disengage 
contrarily, and thrust home carte over the arm. On the 
engagement of carte, when you find that your adversary 
holds his hand too low upon guard, and deviates from 
the guard rules, seize the opening by pushing carte 
straight home. On the engagement of teirce, having the 
like opportunity, deliver the thrust of carte over the arm 
straight home. On the engagement of carte, if your 
adversary disengages to tierce, that instant disengage 
entirely (that is to carte,) and push home. 

All these lessons should be performed repeatedly, and 
the pupil should often exercise with another, who has 



113 

had equal practice, executing all thrusts, feints, counter 
disengagements, &c, while the other remains upon 
guard, making use of the necessary parades, &c. ; he 
should then, in turn, perform the practical movements, 
in order that both may make mutual progress in the art. 



SECTION VI. 

SALUTE— DISARMING. 

The Salute previous to Assaults. 

On the engagement of tierce, make two quick appels, 
or beats with the right foot, bring it close behind the 
left, near the shoe-tie, raising and stretching your right 
arm the nails upward, and the point of your foil dropped, 
at the same time take off your hat gracefully and hold it 
in your left hand, stretched down near the flank ; then 
with a circular motion of the wrist, as if forming the 
counter in tierce, throw your left foot backward to the 
distance of your common guard, and raising your left 
hand, make two other appels • bring your left foot for- 
ward to the former position, that is before the right, near 
the shoe-tie, at the same time stretching your arm with 
the nails upward as before, and in that position form 
gracefully the parades of carte and tierce ; make a cir- 
cular motion with the wrist and advance your right foot 
with vivacity to your original guard, at the same time 
covering your head. All the movements in this salute 
should be performed in a more lively manner than those 
described in the salute previously to thrusting carte and 
tierce ; observe also that these movements should keep 
exactly the same time with those of your adversary. 

DISARMING. 

After parrying your adversary's thrust by simple carte, 
or the counter in carte, without quitting his blade, lean 
abruptly thereon, and binding it with yours, reverse your 
wrist, with the nails downward, as if in seconde, and 
with the motion thereof, give his blade an abrupt twirl. 
If this do not disarm him, it will throw his hand and 
11 



J14 

blade out of the line of direction, so that you may effec- 
tually fix your point, and deliver him a thrust in seconde. 

Also, after parrying by simple tierce, cross his blade 
before he recovers ; make a strong and abrupt circular 
movement with your wrist, in seconde, without quitting 
his blade, and it will either disarm, or give you an open- 
ing to deliver him a thrust. 

Likewise, if he make a longe with the nails reversed, 
parry the thrust with great force in semi-circle. The 
feather parade is a sure disarm. Where your adversary 
makes a thrust in carte over the arm, or tierce, parry, by 
bending the elbow to a very acute angle, bringing the 
hand opposite, with the nails near the shoulder ; the fail 
perpendicular ; then quickly extending the arm, reversing 
the nails, make a powerful glizade on his fail. 



SECTION VII. 

PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

Asssume a bold air and steady position ; fix your eyes 
firmly on those of your adversary, so that he may not 
penetrate into your designs ; and keep your proper dis- 
tance and measure. It is a most essential point in assaults, 
exactly to know these ; for this purpose, observe the 
height of your adversary, the length of his foil, &c, and 
make the necessary allowances accordingly. If he make 
frequent pranks, disengaging, beating your blade, and 
otherwise embarrassing you, with a view to get openings, 
you may seize the occasion to deliver a time-thrust, 
taking care to cover yourself well by forming a good op- 
position against his blade. When on the engagement of 
carte, by way of snare, hold your point higher than usual ; 
if he attempt to make a cut over the point, that instant 
disengage contrarily, and thrust carte inside, or you may 
in preference to this, deliver a straight thrust in carte 
over the arm. 

Be not too eager in making your thrusts in return, as 
by an over eagerness, learners contract a habit of return- 
ing their thrust by crooking the arm, which is quite erro- 
neous. Form your parades justly, and accustom your- 



115 

self, at first, to make straight returns without disengaging. 
If you intend to return a thrust by disengaging, you 
should perform it the moment your adversary is recover- 
ing ; it must proceed from the motion of the wrist, and 
not by crooking the arm. The distance of your guard 
should be moderate — two feet is the distance for men ; 
by a wide guard, you keep your adversary at too great a 
distance, and have not that necessary command of throw- 
ing your body back far enough, when he advances and 
makes a full longe ; neither can you retreat, or make 
returns with the necessary quickness; the lower part of 
the body is also more exposed than it would be on a pro- 
per medium guard. 

Never extend yourself too far on the longe, as it im- 
pedes your recovering to guard with the necessary quick- 
ness. 

Always endeavor to recover quickly, and with as 
much ease as possible, fixing your point to your adver- 
sary's body, and forming the most natural parade, in case 
he should make a quick return. If engaged with an ad- 
versary of a shorter stature, attack him on the engage- 
ment of tierce, as being more advantageous for a number 
of feints and thrusts, than the engagement of carte, par- 
ticularly for the feint seconde over the arm, &c. 

If your adversary advance within his measure, and 
force in a straight thrust carte over the arm, or in tierce, 
then raise and bend your arm, forming the parade of 
prime, and quickly return a straight thrust in prime be- 
fore he recovers ; or if you have not an opening sufficient, 
disengage over his arm, and deliver a thrust in seconde. 

When you first enter upon the assault, you may en- 
gage your adversary's blade out of measure in carte, as 
being easier than the other engagements for executing 
your different movements. 

When you engage your adversary's blade, act on the 
defensive for some time, in order to discover what feints 
or thrusts he prefers. Vary your parades as much as 
possible, so that he may not in turn ascertain your own 
favorites : for, if a good fencer be found to use one parade 
in preference to another, he may be deceived with much 
less difficulty than might be imagined, and eventually be 
touched by a person far less skillful than himself. A 



116 

learner, therefore, should practice all the parades, and 
change them continually, or, at least, as often as oppor- 
tunity occurs. He should endeavor to go from the 
high to the low parades, from the latter to the former, 
with the utmost possible agility, until by practice he is 
enabled to parry almost every thrust. 

If you engage the blade in carte, cover your inside a 
little; and if in tierce, cover your outside, to present 
straight thrusts in those engagements. When attacking, 
it is well to disengage dexterously, outside and inside, 
forming your extension as if you intended to thrust. If 
this plan do not afford you some openings, it will, at least, 
in all probability, be the means of discovering your ad- 
versary's choice parades. If he use simple parades only, 
you may easily deceive him by making feints, one, two, 
or, one two, three. If, on the contrary, he be a skillful 
fencer, and uses various counter-parades, you must 
endeavor to embarrass him by appels, beates on the 
blade, extensions, glizades, counter-disengagements, &c. 



RECOMMENDATIONS. 



Penn Literary, Scientific and Military Institute, \ 
July 15, 1843. J 

The system of Sword Exercise, as taught by Col. Thomas Stephens, em- 
braces all that is useful, without the unmeaning motions which comprise the 
major part of the old exercise, as has been adopted in this country. I am 
well satisfied from the examination that I have made, it is perfectly simple, 
methodical and superior to any other, and so confidently recommend it to 
all who may desire to become acquainted with the art. 

A. PARTRIDGE. 
I fully concur in the above. H. V. MORIS, 

Sword Master. 

I have examined Col. Thomas Stephens in his exercise and practice of 
Broad Sword, and do most cheerfully concur with the above. His system 
is a very great improvement on the old one, generally taught and adopted in 
this country, and take pleasure in recommending him as a competent 
instructor. 

ADAM DILLER, 
Adjutant General P. M. 
Philadelphia, July 19, 1843. 
I fully concur with Gen. Diller in the above. 

DAVID R. PORTER, 
Governor of Pennsylvania and Commander in Chief. 
I cheerfully concur in the above. JOHN DAVIS, 

Maj. Gen. 2d Div. P. M. 
I take great pleasure in concurring in the above recommendation of Gen. 
Diller and others. 

Col. THOS. C. BUNTING. 

Philadelphia, August 10, 1843. 
The compend of Sword Exercise prepared by Col. Thomas Stephens, ap- 
pears to me to be one of much excellence. It contains all that is useful as 
well as ornamental in this important art of defence, while it discards en- 
tirely the lumber of the old exercise. It is a work which should be in the 
hands of every commissioned officer in the State. 

WILLIAM P. SMITH, 
Aid to the Governor of Pennsylvania. 

I have seen Mr. Thomas Stephens' practice in the Broad Sword Exercise 
in cutting, thrusting and parrying; and to great physical power he adds ex- 
traordinary agility in the use of his weapon. 

As he is desirous to form a class of pupils in this branch of military edu- 
cation, I have no hesitation in saying that I deem him to be entirely com- 
petent to furnish practically such instruction in the use of the sabre, as 
would be eminently valuable to any officer or gentleman who wishes to ac- 
quire this military accomplishment. 

A. J. PLEASONTON, 
Colonel 1st Kegiment Artillery. 
Philadelphia, June 14, 1843. 
I fully concur in the above. H. W. HUBBELL, 

Brig. Gen. 3d Brig. 1st Div. P. M. 
I concur in the above. GEO. CADWALADAR, 

Brig. Gen. 1st Brig. 1st Div. P. M. 



118 

Philadelphia, June 19, 1843. 
I have seen Col. Thomas Stephens' course of Broad Sword Exercise for 
Cavalry and Infantry, embracing five divisions for the former service and 
three for the latter, and have no hesitation in expressing a highly favorable 
opinion of his mode of attack and defence in the use of this weapon, believ- 
ing it to be superior in every respect to that heretofore taught. 

JAMES PAGE, 
Captain State Fencibles. 
I fully concur with Col. Page in the above. J. MURRAY, 

Col. 102d Reg. Volunteers. 

Philadelphia, August 13, 1843. 
Col. Thomas Stephens, 
Dear Sir — It affords me pleasure, after having passed through a course 
of instruction under you in the Sword Exercise, to be able to tender you this 
humble testimonial of the superiority of your system over all others that I 
have ever known. I have been the pupil of skillful French, English, Ger- 
man and American swordsmen, and while under their instruction learned 
much to be valued, with many cuts, thrusts and positions, for display 
which incumber and lumber the exercises, while all positions, cuts and 
thrusts in your system are necessary for attack and defence, giving, in my 
humble opinion, your pupils or those who possess a knowledge of your sys- 
tem, incalculable advantage over an adversary of a different school. I have 
no doubt that our regular service will do you and your syslem, when it be- 
comes known to them, that justice which you are entitled to. You will find 
our officers in the army and navy liberal, high-minded, honorable men, 
ready to embrace every useful improvement in the science of war, and never 
backward when their country calls to do their duty. 

I am, very respectfully, &c. 

ROBERT M. LEE, 
Captain of the Volunteer Corps of Union Fencibles. 

Philadelphia, July 3, 1843. 
I would recommend to the Volunteers of Pennsylvania, or any other State, 
Col. Thomas Stephens' new system of Sword Exercise, for Cavalry or In- 
fantry, as being far the best I have ever seen, either in this country or in 
Europe, having served a number of years in the French army. 

J. ARCHAMBAULT, 
Captain of Union Troop of Cavalry of Bucks Co. Pa. 

Mr. Thomas Stephens, 
Dear Sir — I have examined with care the Broad. Sword Exercise pre- 
pared by you for the use of schools, &c, and do not hesitate to say, that in 
my opinion it is better calculated to aid all who wish to become acquainted 
with that branch of military tactics, than any other work which has fallen 
under my notice. Respectfully yours, 

ROBT. FLEMING, 
Brig. Gen. 1st Brig. 9th Div. P. M. 
TVilliamsport, June 5, 184,3. 
I fully concur in the above. HEPBURN McCLURE. 

I fully concur in the above. JOHN BENNETT. 

Williamsport, March 27, 1843. 
Mr. T. Stephens, 
Sir — From the thorough examination I have been enabled to give yonr 
system of Broad Sword Exercise, I am without hesitation impressed to say, 
that it is the best and plainest system of the kind that I have ever seen. 

Respectfully, yours, &c. 

JOS. G. RATHMELL, 
Brigade Inspector 1st Brig. 9th Div. P. M. 



119 

I have witnessed Mr. Thomas Stephens' Sword Exercise, and believe it 
to be the most perfect and excellent system extant. With such discipline it 
is very obvious that a few choice soldiers could do more service on the 
field, than myriads of the untrained could resist. 

GEO. M. KEIM, 
Late Major General 6th Div. P. M. 

I concur in the above. N. H. DAVIS, 

Sword Master and Military Instructor, Virginia. 

The undersigned having witnessed the Sword Exercise performed by 
Thomas Stephens, are of opinion he is well qualified to teach the same, ancl 
recommend him to every one desirous of being acquainted with that part of 
military discipline, so necessarv to form an accomplished soldier. 

R. H. HAMMOND, 
JAMES TAGGART, 
JACKSON M'FADDIN, 

B rigade Pnsv e cto r . 
H. HAMMOND, 

77. S. Army. 
Maj. Gex. A. GREEN, 
Brig. Gex. JOHN BRYAN. 

I have examined the system of Sword Exercise, carefully drawn up by 
Mr. Thomas Stephens, and take pleasure in recommending" it to all those 
desirous of having a knowledge of that science, so absolutely necessary to 
the soldier, as beins - the most complete exercise I have seen. 

WM. BRINDLE, Colonel. 
Muncy, March 25, 1S43. 

I fully concur in the above. THOMAS J. ADDIS. 

I also concur in the above. L. G. HITLING. 

Having carefully examined "A New System of Broad Sword Exercise, 
comprising Cavalry and Infantry Tactics," &c, prepared by Mr. Thomas 
Stephens, and having seen him give instructions to pupils, conformably to 
the rules laid down in his system, I am satisfied that it is well adapted to the 
wants of those who desire to become thoroughly skilled in the sword exer- 
cise, and merits the encouragemeut of all who are friends to correct military 
discipline. 

J. B. ANTHONY, 
Late Brigadier General 1st Brig. 9th Div. P. M. 

Williamsportj Pa., March 27, 1S43. 



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